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2022 Pakistan floods

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2022 Pakistan floods
2022 Pakistan Floods - August 27, 2021 vs. August 27, 2022 in Sindh.jpg
Satellite imagery showing a side-by-side comparison of southern Pakistan on 27 August 2021 (one year before the floods) and 27 August 2022
Date14 June 2022 – present
LocationBalochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, southern parts of Punjab, Sindh, Azad Kashmir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
CauseHeavy monsoon rains, climate change
Deaths1,481[1][2]
Non-fatal injuries12,728[3]
Property damageUS$30 billion (estimates)[4]

Since June 14, 2022, floods in Pakistan have killed 1,481 people.[2] The floods were caused by heavier than usual monsoon rains and melting glaciers[5] that followed a severe heat wave, all of which are linked to climate change. It is the world's deadliest flood since the 2017 South Asian floods[6] and described as the worst in the country's history.[7] On 25 August, Pakistan declared a state of emergency because of the flooding.[8] By 29 August, Pakistan's minister of climate change said around "one-third" of the country was under water, affecting 33 million people.[9][10] The government of Pakistan has estimated the loss of US$30 billion so far from floodings across the country.[4][11]

In August 2022, six military officers were killed in a helicopter crash during a flood relief operation. Flash flooding has also occurred in nearby bordering areas of India and Afghanistan.[12][13][14]

Background

The minister of climate change of Pakistan, Sherry Rehman, said that the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan had received more rainfall than the August average, with 784% and 500% more, respectively.[15][16] Higher than average monsoon rains were also recorded in India and Bangladesh.[17] The Indian Ocean is one of the fastest warming oceans in the world, warming by an average of 1 °C (1.8 °F) (while worldwide temperatures are now at 1.2 °C (2.2 °F) above pre-industrial temperatures, oceans in general are at around 0.7 °C (1.3 °F)).[17] The rise in sea surface temperatures is believed to increase monsoon rainfall.[18][17] In addition, southern Pakistan experienced back-to-back heat waves in May and June, which were record setting and themselves made more likely by climate change.[19] These created a strong thermal low that brought heavier rains than usual.[18] The heatwaves also triggered glacial flooding in Gilgit-Baltistan.[19] Pakistan contributes less than 1% of global greenhouse gas emissions, but is one of the places most vulnerable to climate change.[20]

Impact

Overview of rainfall accumulation and flooding

1,481 people died, including 499 children, and an additional 12,728 were injured.[2][3] 663,869 people are living in temporary camps because of the floods.[3] These are the deadliest floods in Pakistan since 2010, when nearly 2,000 died in flooding,[21] and the deadliest in the world since the 2017 South Asian floods.[6] The finance minister of Pakistan, Miftah Ismail, said that the floods had inflicted at least US$30 billion (or ₨. 6.7 trillion) of damage on Pakistan.[4][22][23] Sherry Rehman, the minister of climate change, said on 29 August that "one-third" of the country was underwater, and there was "no dry land to pump the water out", adding that it was a "crisis of unimaginable proportions".[9] Agricultural fields were also devastated by the water.[10]

Damaged houses per district

Heavy monsoon rainfall and floods have affected 33 million people in Pakistan since mid-June,[3][9][10] destroying 568,817 houses and damaging another 1,174,528.[3] Sindh and Balochistan are the two most affected provinces in terms of human and infrastructure impact. 750,223 livestock have been killed, most of them in the province of Balochistan,[3] while destruction to 6,575 kilometres (4,086 mi) of roads and 269 bridges[3] has impeded access across flood-affected areas.[24] Over 17,560 schools were damaged or destroyed.[24] At the request of the Balochistan Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA), a multisectoral rapid needs assessment was undertaken in 10 districts of Balochistan to identify priority needs and gaps across sectors. Humanitarian partners are supporting the government-led response in affected areas, redirecting existing resources to meet the most urgent needs while working to further scale up the response.[citation needed].

Aid workers warned that lack of clean drinking water caused an increase in water-borne diseases, namely diarrhea, cholera, dengue, and malaria.[25]

Asia and the Pacific: Weekly Regional Humanitarian Snapshot (16 – 22 August 2022)

Sindh

Floods in Sindh killed 578 people and injured 8,321.[3] Among the 251 children killed[3] were three who died when the roof of their house collapsed in Kandhkot.[26] 10 million people have been displaced in Sindh and 57,496 houses were severely damaged or completely destroyed, mostly in the Hyderabad Division, and 830 cattle were killed.[26] 6,200 km2 (1,540,000 acres) of farmland have been swept away by the floods.[24]

An arial view of Shahdadkot city covered with floods water in September 2022.

The Larkana and Sukkur divisions have also been severely affected by the floods; Thari Mirwah and K.N.Shah has been 'inundated'.[27][28] [29]The floods have turned the Indus River into a lake 100 km (62 mi) wide.[30]

The city of Karachi has not been affected yet by the renewed flooding, but had been affected previously.[31]

During the floods, Lake Manchar overflowed, and in September 2022 efforts were made to assist its drainage.[32]

Balochistan

Flooding in Balochistan killed 267 people.[3] In many areas, rainwater infiltrated many homes and made them uninhabitable. Many families were displaced.[33][34][35] 426,897 houses have either been damaged or completely destroyed, and 1,230 km2 (304,000 acres) of crops were lost.[6][24][36] A half-million livestock have also been killed.[3]

According to the Relief Commissioner Provincial Disaster Management, Balochistan's capital Quetta has been declared a disaster area due to rains, and an emergency had been declared in the province.[37][38]

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

293 people died[3] and 600,000 others were displaced by floods.[39] Among them were five children in Upper Dir District; they had been returning home from school, before they were swept away by the floods and drowned.[40] 326,897 houses were damaged due to floods and landslides, and 7,742 cattle died from collapsing sheds.[6] In Swat District, a newly built hotel had collapsed due to excessive flooding.[41] The southwestern part of the province was previously affected by the June 2022 Afghanistan earthquake.

In Lower Kohistan District, 5 people stranded in a hill torrent were swept away; 4 of them were killed, while the other one was rescued.[42] In Balakot, 8 nomads were killed due to flooding in a tributary of the Kunhar River.[43] 12 people were also killed in floodings in different areas of Dera Ismail Khan due to flash floods from hill torrents.[44]

Gilgit-Baltistan

Gilgit River Level near Canopy Nexus Hotel before flooding
Gilgit River Level near Canopy Nexus Hotel after flooding in 2022
Comparison of the Gilgit river before and after flooding. The area depicted is Canopy Nexus hotel on river view road Gilgit

22 people died,[3] four are missing, and floods badly affected the Karakoram Highway.[6] Roads were closed for traffic at several places due to landslides.[45][46] The districts of Ghizar, Nagar, Diamer, Ghanche and Astore were the worst affected. 420 homes were destroyed and 740 were damaged due to floods and landslides.[6] Meanwhile, the S-1 Strategic Highway also suffered erosion due to high water flows in the Indus River. The Ishkoman Valley Road was cut off at Gutkash due to flooding in the Ishkoman River.[47] A bridge at Chhorbat in Ghanche District was also flooded. Valley roads and two bridges of Nagar District were swept away by floods.[48] There are also reports of damage in Khanar and Bonar in Diamer District.[49] As of 26 August, most parts of the villages in Ghizer were destroyed by the flood. Among these are Buber Valley, Gahkuch and Gulmuti. Residents were asked to evacuate the flood-affected areas. River levels are rising to an extremely dangerous height.

Punjab

In Punjab, 191 people died and 3,858 others suffered injuries.[3] In Taunsa Sharif, many settlements were submerged in flood water. In the historical town of Mangadotha, west of Taunsa Sharif, hundreds of houses and livestock were swept away by flood waters.[50] 7,200 km2 (1,780,000 acres) of farmland were also lost.[24] Residents of communities adjacent to flooded rivers began to evacuate, with most families moving away. Most of the families have moved to safer places on foot and camels while carrying only essential supplies as roads and bridges were washed away.[51][52]

Azad Kashmir

44 people died by flooding in Azad Kashmir.[3] On 31 July, in the Poonch District, ten people died and four were injured when a roof collapsed on top of them.[53] Five tourists from Mianwali were swept away and later confirmed to have been killed in Neelum Valley on 19 August.[54]

Response

National

The prime minister, Shehbaz Sharif, who has decided to spearhead the relief operation in the wake of massive floods, met international partners on 25 August who pledged to provide $500 million to the country to mitigate the havoc wreaked by flooding.[55]

Army officers, federal cabinet members and senators will donate their one-month salary for flood relief fund.[56][57][58]

PTCL Group, Pakistan's largest telecom and internet services provider announced ₨. 1.75 billion to support floods relief affectees.[59][60]

The chairman of the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) party and former prime minister, Imran Khan, held a 3-hour-long telethon to raise funds for flood affectees and received ₨. 500 crores (or US$22.5 million) in pledges for flood relief.[61]

On 30 August, the Government of Pakistan announced $170 million allocation to flood victims, which will be disbursed through the Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP) as part of Pakistan Flood Response Plan 2022.[62] The Pakistani embassies in China and Turkey have also set up fundraisers requesting flood relief donations from locals.[63][64]

Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) introduces 9999 SMS code for flood relief donations to enable the consumers donate their funds through mobile phone text to support the flood victims. The consumers would be required to write 'fund' and send it to the 9999 short code to donate ₨. 10 to contribute to the prime minister's floods relief fund.[65][66]

International

  • The World Bank allocated $370 million in relief aid to Pakistan.[67]
  • Apple CEO Tim Cook says Apple will donate relief goods to Pakistan for recovery efforts in flood-hit areas.[68] Apple will donate a sum of $160 million to Pakistan.[69]
  • Google announced donation of $0.5 million for flood victims in Pakistan.[70]
  • The International Rescue Committee announced emergency response teams have been deployed in Pakistan to provide immediate assistance to 33 million floods affected people.[71]
  • Prince Karim Aga Khan's son, Prince Rahim Aga Khan, donated $10 million for flood victims.[72]
  • The United Nations has allocated $3 million from its Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to help the affected areas.[73] The UN seeks additional $160 million in emergency aid for floods relief efforts in Pakistan.[74] On 9–10 September, UN Secretary-General António Guterres visited Pakistan to show solidarity with flood victims and appeal for other countries to provide more help.[75][76][77]
  • On 23 August, the European Union announced that it is providing immediate provision of €350,000 (nearly ₨. 76 million) to Pakistan for humanitarian assistance.[78] On 28 August, it mobilised another €2.35 million in emergency humanitarian funding.[79]
  • The World Health Organization allocated $10 million to emergency health relief efforts.[80]
  • On 18 August, United States secretary of state, Antony Blinken, announced a $1 million disaster aid to Pakistan to overcome challenges caused by flooding.[81][82] On 30 August, the United States announced another grant of $30 million.[83] On September 5, U.S. Department of State Counselor Derek Chollet announced to visit Pakistan with a high-level delegation for a few days to provide further help to Pakistan. When in Pakistan, the United States created a massive humanitarian air bridge for flood victims. The air bridge made it possible for twenty US C-17 millitary aircrafts to easily transport food and shelter material to Pakistan worth $2.2 million.[84] On 9 September, United States announced to commit a total of $53.1 million in US AID to Pakistan. $50.1 million for urgent flood relief and $3 million to bolster disaster resilience.[85]
  • On 22 August, Saudi Arabia, through KSrelief, started delivering 100 emergency relief trucks, carrying 10,000 food packages weighting 950 tons to 17 flood-ravaged districts in Pakistan. This would benefit more than 70,000 people.[86]
  • On 25 August, a spokesman of the Chinese Foreign Ministry in a statement expressed their deep sympathies to the flood-affected victims and offered sincere condolences to the families of the victims. Emergency humanitarian aid, including 25,000 tents and relief materials, is being dispatched forthwith while 4,000 tents, 50,000 blankets, 50,000 tarpaulins and other reserves provided by China under the framework of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor's (CPEC) social and people's livelihood cooperation have been put into the frontline for relief. The Red Cross Society of China has already provided emergency cash assistance of $300,000 to the Pakistan Red Crescent Society.[87][88] On 30 August, China announced an assistance grant of 100 million yuan (US$14.5 million).[89][90] On 3 September, China announced another assistance package of 300 million yuan (US$43.5 million). Bringing the total aid to $58 million.[91]
  • On 27 August, the Government of the United Kingdom announced £1.5m flood support fund for Pakistan.[92][93] On 1 September, the UK government announced further £15 million of assistance for Pakistan.[94] The Disasters Emergency Committee also raised £8 million in just 24 hours.[95]
  • On 27 August, Azerbaijan announced it would provide US$2 million in aid to Pakistan.[96][97]
  • On 28 August, the Irish minister of foreign affairs, Simon Coveney, said in a post on Twitter that Ireland has 'committed an initial contribution of €500,000 in emergency humanitarian funding' to Pakistan.[98]
  • On 29 August, Canada announced $5 million funding for humanitarian assistance to Pakistan.[99][100]
  • On 29 August, the United Arab Emirates opened an airbridge to transport humanitarian aid from the UAE to Pakistan, pledging 20 aircraft sorties of relief goods for flood victims worth $50 million.[101][102][103] The ruler of Dubai, Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, announced an additional 50 million AED (US$13.5 million) aid package for flood victims.[104] On 9 September, UAE Minister of Tolerance & Coexistence Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan announced aid of $10 million for relief and rehabilitation of the flood-stricken people of Pakistan, for which Prime Minister of Pakistan Shehbaz Sharif has thanked him.[105]
  • On 29 August, Qatar announced that they will send 21,000 food baskets, 5,000 tents and 5,000 personal hygiene kits to Pakistan, through their Qatar Fund for Development.[106] Emir of Qatar Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani also donated humanitarian assistance for flood victims, which includes a field hospital with 93-member staff.[107]
  • On 29 August, Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi, extended heartfelt condolences to the families of those who were affected by the floods and said that he hopes for an early restoration of normalcy.[108][109]
  • On 30 August, Germany announced food aid to 1,000 families for two months in Pakistan's Lasbela District.[110] Additionally, Germany also announced food aid and hygiene sets to a total of 60,000 people.[111]
  • On 30 August, South Korea announced $300,000 in relief aid to Pakistan.[112] On 9 September, Germany announced to further donate €1 million to Pakistan.[113]
  • On 30 August 2022, prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, announced that her country will provide aid to flood victims in the Balochistan province of Pakistan.[114] Bangladesh's Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief has allocated 14 million to provide relief items to Pakistan including 10 tonnes of biscuit, 10 tonnes of dry cake, 100,000 water purification tablets, 50,000 packets of oral saline, 5,000 mosquito nets, 2,000 blankets and 2,000 tents.[115]
  • On 31 August, the Australian Government announced it will provide $2 million in humanitarian aid to Pakistan.[116]
  • On 31 August, the Government of Japan announced it will provide emergency relief goods to Pakistan, containing tents and plastic sheets, through Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).[117] On September 6, Japan announced a new emergency grant of $7 million to support the people of Pakistan.[118]
  • Turkey sent relief goods to Pakistan,[119][102] including 10,000 tents, 50,000 food parcels, 50,000 hygiene materials and 10,000 parcels of baby food in the first stage.[120]
  • On 31 August, the Government of Norway announced 25 million NOK (US$2.5 million) in emergency relief and food security efforts.[121] On 8 September, Norway announced to increase their flood relief contribution to 80 million NOK ($8.15 million).[122]
  • On 31 August, France, on the request of President Emmanuel Macron, announced they will donate 83 high-capacity water pumps, 200 family tents and survival, hygiene and protective equipment to Pakistan. France will also deploy doctors and nurses to the country and will ship a 50-meter-long Bailey bridge that could be swiftly deployed in the affected areas.[123]
  • On 31 August, Sweden announced a 30 million SEK (US$2.8 million) donation to impacted communities.[124]
  • On 1 September, Iran sent 1000 tents, 4000 blankets and 2000 mosquito nets.[125]
  • On 1 September, Denmark announced 10 million DKK (US$1.35 million) in emergency assistance.[126] Denmark also sent a water purification module that can convert contaminated water into drinking water and produce 120,000 liters of clean water per day. Along with 10 Danish specialists.[127]
  • In a response to Pakistan's appeals for international aid for flood relief, Belgium will provide Pakistan 300 tents to shelter a total of 1800 people.[128]
  • In view to contributing to the international humanitarian response, the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation has allocated a 500,000 euro emergency contribution to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) in Pakistan. The contribution will enable the IFRC to support the Pakistan Red Crescent in delivering emergency aid to the most vulnerable population segments.[129]
  • Prime minister of Fiji, Frank Bainimarama, said that high-emitting countries are to blame for the devastating flood in Pakistan.[130]

Army helicopter crash

On 1 August 2022, a Pakistan Army Aviation helicopter on flood relief operations in the Lasbela area of Balochistan lost contact with air traffic control.[131][132][133][134] The six military personnel on board, including the commander of the XII Corps, Lieutenant General Sarfraz Ali, died in the crash.[135] Reports from Pakistani authorities on their early investigations attributed the crash to poor weather conditions,[135] whereas Reuters reported on unverified claims from the Baloch insurgency umbrella group Baloch Raaji Aajoi Sangar that they shot the helicopter down.[136]

See also

References

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