List of fraternities and sororities at the University of Minnesota

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The number of fraternities and sororities at the University of Minnesota is extensive. Approximately 11% of undergraduates, 3,400 students, participate in one of the 60 chapters of social fraternities or sororities at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities campus.[1] Participation in affiliated groups associated with the Greek System such as honor, service, and professional fraternities bring total Greek System affiliation figures significantly higher. Counting past and present, more than half of the University's 200 Greek organizations remain active today, the pioneers of which have had a presence on the University of Minnesota campus for over 145 years. The university's "Greek System" includes professional fraternities, honor societies, service fraternities, and religious fraternities along with the highly visible residential undergrad academic and social chapters.

A comprehensive list of chapters, past and present, segmented by category, follows this brief overview of what these societies are and how they evolved. References for each group show current and former property addresses either owned or leased. Contact information is provided via the references, where available.

The terms "Fraternity" and "Sorority" are used somewhat interchangeably, with men's and co-ed groups always using Fraternity, and women's groups using either Fraternity or Sorority.[2] For convenience, the term "Greek Letter Society" is a generic substitute. The word, "Greek," in this case refers to the use of Greek Letters for each society's name, and not to Greek ethnicity.

Historical sketch[edit]

Editors of the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook created iconic etchings to highlight fraternity and sorority pages, this example from 1922.

The University of Minnesota Greek system is over 145 years old, having grown steadily with the rapid growth of the University. Its first men's fraternity, Chi Psi, dates to 1874, and its first women's fraternity, Kappa Kappa Gamma, dates to 1880, long before the term 'sorority' was popularized as a term for the women's 'houses'.

Yet these pioneer chapters did not themselves mark the beginnings of a fraternal presence at the school. Many of Minnesota's early University presidents and department heads were fraternity men or women from 'back East,' having experienced undergraduate life in the flourishing literary societies and old-line fraternities[3] that in turn were born out of America's earliest institutions of higher learning. These include William Watts Folwell, the University's first president, who was a member of Alpha Delta Phi at Hobart College, Cyrus Northrop,[4] who was both an Alpha Sigma Phi AND a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon at Yale,[5] Ada Comstock, Dean of Women, and a member of Delta Gamma at Minnesota, president George Vincent who was also a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon at Yale, and president James Morrill who was also an Alpha Sigma Phi, at Ohio State.

Still, because Minnesota's is one of the oldest fraternity systems in the nation, many of the University's Greek chapters are consequently among the oldest of their respective organizations, and often have single-letter or first-series chapter names or designations. Similarly, the age, prestige, size and breadth of the University of Minnesota have resulted in its hosting many of the nation's honor and professional fraternities for most disciplines. As early as 1925, the Minnesota Gopher yearbook reported the presence of 25 national academic fraternities, 18 national academic sororities, and 33 national professional chapters on campus. Most of these, undergrad or professional, are (or were) residential.

Over 90 years later, as of 2017, Minnesota hosts 37 academic fraternities, 23 academic sororities, 61 honors societies, 31 professional societies, and 4 service- or religious-focused chapters.[6]

Impact on campus, and population[edit]

Since inception, these organizations have delivered an outsized influence and benefit to the campus: The first indicator of this impact is the fact of hundreds of pages devoted to the myriad of Greek Letter organizations profiled in each issue of the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook during its century-long publication run.[7][8] These organizations have served as a primary hub of the student experience at the university for their entire existence, for active members, regular guests, and alumni.[9]

The high watermark for Greek Life participation by percentage, indicated by review of senior photos and club membership, was in 1910 through 1920, when approximately 1/4 of undergraduates participated in one or more of the academic or professional societies.[10] The peak number of residential chapters came at approximately 75 in 1930.[11] While membership continued to expand into the 1930s, the membership percentage decreased as the Minnesota campus grew less residential. Through this period, interest in Greek chapter membership was not as strong among commuters, 'night class,' and non-traditional students. The Membership percentage of the overall undergraduate population reached a low point of 3% in the late 1960s. Later, an upturn resulted in a numeric peak that came during the early 1980s: In 1981 the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life reported 3,100 net members, while 3,964 participated in 1984.[11]: 33  In a spike downturn coinciding with the economic recession of that era, participation hit a marked numeric low point in about 2005, but recovering to 1,795 active members in 2011 its population has continued increasing through to the present day. By mid-2014 participation included approximately 2,800 net undergraduate members, as reported in June of that year, reflecting about 8% of the undergraduate population and about 12% of 2013–14's incoming freshmen class.[12][13] Noteworthy membership gains continue: by 2017, participation had increased to 3,400, or fully 11% of the campus undergraduate population, even prior to adding students in the professional chapters.[1] Fifty-eight campus chapters were residential as of 2017.[14]

Detail from the 1922 Minnesota Gopher yearbook

Traditions[edit]

For over a century, Minnesota's Greek chapters provided the backbone of campus support for traditions such as Homecoming and Campus Carnival, which events, along with Greek Week, almost immediately sparked a procession of annual competitions between chapters for best decor, musical talent, cheer, theater and dance. Athletic teams, where Greeks were predominant among both varsity and club sports similarly were knit into the campus life of previous decades, offering the University twin fountains of school spirit.

Homecoming[edit]

The longest-running collegiate football "trophy game" rivalry[15] in the United States is Minnesota's enduring series of battles against the University of Michigan, whose Little Brown Jug was first captured by Minnesota in 1903. Building from the excitement of that memorable game, Minnesota's Homecoming tradition, an opportunity for alumni to gather at their Alma Mater, began in 1914 with a game against Wisconsin and a Homecoming Dance. By 1919 Greeks had organized a parade to mark the day, with fraternities, sororities, academic departments, and dorms all vying for the best-decorated float. The Minnesota Gopher yearbook of 1922 remarks in a retrospective of the 1919 event that "all University buildings, as well as the fraternities and sororities, were decorated in Minnesota and Michigan colors."[16] This tradition has persisted and grown over 100 years.

Four ΣΧ All-Americans in 1929: l to r: Joesting, Gibson, Martineau and Nagurski

Sports[edit]

Varsity and Inter-fraternal sports were intertwined in the first half of the 20th century. Early campus sporting legends were often members of campus fraternities. The most notable example is Sigma Chi's Bronco Nagurski, a standout Football All-American in 1929 who played for Minnesota from 1927 to 1929. He was named to the College Football Hall of Fame in its inaugural year of 1951. Pledging during the Fall of 1927, Nagurski participated in the rowdy social scene, endless buffet dinners and the arduous pledge process that would later be outlined by his biographer, Jim Dent. His experience was similar to other members in an era where Hell week was a requirement regardless of social or athletic status.[17] Ninety years later, Nagurski's jersey and photo are still enshrined at the fraternity house where he remains as revered today as he was during his collegiate career.[18] Another example is Phi Sigma Kappa's Bert Baston, likewise a standout All-American in both the 1915 and 1916 seasons. Baston later served as the Varsity Gophers' Ends Coach from 1930 to 1941, and again from 1946 to 1950, and was named to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1954.[19][20] Alpha Delta Phi's Bernie Bierman was Head Coach at Minnesota from 1932 to 1950, likewise with a 4-year break for WWII service. He and Baston powered their 1915 team to a national championship as undergrads. Later, as Head Coach, Bierman went on to win five national championships and election to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1955. Bud Grant, long-time coach of the Minnesota Vikings was a three-sport, nine-letter athlete at Minnesota and a member of Phi Delta Theta, later elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Sigma Chi served up three other All-Americans: Herb Joesting, a full back, elected to the 'Hall in 1954, All-American in 1926–27 and a chapter contemporary of Nagurski; George Gibson, fellow namesake of the Gibson-Nagurski football complex, selected as an All-American in 1928; and Earl Martineau, selected as an All-American in 1922 and 1923. Thus a single chapter had four All-Americans (two Hall of Famers) within a seven-year span, close enough for the four to be photographed, dressed for practice (pictured).[21] A sixth campus All-American was Phi Delta Theta's Dick Wildung, 1942 team captain, NFL first-round draftee to the Packers, and yet another inductee into the College Football Hall of Fame, elected in 1957. Several decades later, another chapter boasted three outstanding Hall of Fame athletes at the same time: Carl Eller, Vikings legend, was a U of MN standout from 1959 to 1962, Bobby Bell was twice elected All-American, playing from 1960 to 1962, and Sandy Stephens, playing from 1959 to 1961, was named an All-American quarterback. All three were members of Alpha Phi Alpha. In all, 14 of 19 Gopher players who have been named to the College Football Hall of Fame as of 2021 have been members of campus fraternities.[22]

It was a point of pride for fraternities to feature those "big men on campus" in their recruitment materials, Letterman for their respective athletic teams.

Several sports were popularized through early fraternity support. Whereas football, basketball, and track were named early varsity sports with the more robust funding that name implies, others, like tennis, wrestling and gymnastics were tagged as "minor sports." Hockey fit into a middle ground. The sport was played throughout the region as a club sport in the 1900s and 1910s, with ad-hoc teams named to represent the University on outdoor rinks as early as 1903 and again in 1910. Rivals included the University of Chicago and the University of Wisconsin. Interest steadily grew, along with inklings of future conference play. By 1920 some twenty teams fielded by the fraternities vied in what Gopher editorials deemed the "fierce competition for the league championship." The stars of this fraternity league, including Phi Sigma Kappa's Merle DeForrest, Paul Swanson and Frank Pond, and Delta Tau Delta's Chester Bros were named to a team to represent the University.[23] That year, DeForrest organized a petition drive that resulted in permanent funding by the Regents, awarding the hockey team its long-sought varsity status. Soon after, former captain, Frank Pond was named as Varsity Hockey's third Head Coach (1930–35). Today, the team's Rookie of the Year award is named after Pond.[24][25][26]

The first-ever Crew Racing competition was organized on May 13, 1926, by another Phi Sigma Kappa athlete, Owen "Sox" Whiteside '29, who had won an international juniors championship in the Northwest International Regatta the year prior.[27] It appeared obvious to Minnesota Daily[28] and Gopher yearbook writers that proximity to a mild stretch of the Mississippi River made it natural that the University should have a premier Crew team.[29] The first-ever rowing competition at Minnesota was held that year, pitting honors societies the Iron Wedge and the Grey Friars against each other with borrowed 4-man shells in an attempt to jump-start the sport. Several races followed over the next decade, but the downturn of the Great Depression cooled interest and funding, which only returned to its previous level after WWII with the establishment of a men's rowing club team in 1957, and a women's varsity team in 2000.

Athletes continued to wear fraternity letters well into the 1980s until risk-averse coaches began to limit such fraternity participation within the major sports. Greeks still may be found among non-revenue teams, as club sports participants and within intramurals.

Phi Sigma Kappa and Alpha Chi Omega paired for 1987's winning entry, "Hitchcock," shown here in mid-song.

Campus Carnival and Greek Week[edit]

Where Homecoming was the premier event for the Fall Quarter[30] at the University of Minnesota, Greek Week or the more recent 'Machy Days has provided a focus for Greek competition during the Winter Quarter. Yet it was the venerable Campus Carnival which held sway during the early Spring for over seven decades running. "Carni" grew from a small penny carnival established in 1914 to a massive, blaring fundraiser that rivaled any other campus in dollars raised for children's charities.[31][32] Gamma Phi Beta sorority was the first sponsor, challenging the other sororities to decorate small booths. Three years later the Women's Athletic Association (WAA) took the lead, presiding over an event in the Women's Gym that was billed as a sort of miniature Mardi Gras; a swimmers exhibition had the ladies smeared with phosphorus before diving into the pool, and in 1931 they debuted women's fencing as one of several athletic exhibitions. But it was the competitive 'hawking' of items for sale or challenge games from which evolved the ballyhoo dance lines and show ticket barkers of later years. From this event the WAA earned needed funds for women's sports equipment and operating expenses. Later, beginning in the 1940s, it was managed by professional fraternity Alpha Kappa Psi, and finally, by an independent board of governors. After WWII, outgrowing the Women's Gym, the event took place in the Fieldhouse.

The event continued to grow and evolve. By the 1960s, fraternity and sorority pairings would design a 50' x 150' three-story set built upon scaffolding and decorated with painted flats, upon which a 10-person pick-up band would play, surrounded by a "ballyhoo" of a dozen sorority dancers. The 3-day event earned extensive coverage in the newspapers of the time, all similarly describing the scene: With the blare of a horn marking the time, the bands would play all at once, to entertain a crowd gathered in front. After eight minutes another horn would blast, and the crowd would surge into the bowels of the set to gather on bleachers where they'd watch a 12-minute one-act play. Every half hour, the cycle would repeat. Fieldhouse entrance tickets, show admission fees and concession proceeds would all be donated to charity. In its later years, Carni would grow to generate in excess of $250,000 annually over the three-day bash. Carni finally ended in 1989, on concerns over rapidly increasing insurance rates and its impact on grades.

On a smaller scale, Greek Week offered an opportunity to showcase athletic prowess on the intramural fields while musical and dance talent was celebrated on the stage of Northrop Auditorium, again, by pairings of fraternities and sororities. It was common through the late 1990s for a fraternity and sorority to pair for these events, Homecoming, Greek Week and Carni, and not to join together with multiple houses as is the practice today. About the year 2000, Greek Week ended, but was replaced by an expansion of 'Machy Days, originally an event hosted by Sigma Chi fraternity, adjusted to offer much the same array of events.

The culture of competitive fundraising for charities and participating in hands-on charitable work continues as a deeply held tradition among all the Greek chapters, at Minnesota and nationally. Most have their own national charitable focus, while chapters often participate in more local efforts within their community.

Building Fraternity Row[edit]

Minnesota's fraternities and sororities built up their housing prospects in three distinct phases, according to the 2003 Minneapolis Historical Commission Study.[11] Before 1900, most early chapters served their membership with rented private homes. Between 1900 and 1917, rentals gave way to properties built for the chapters, resulting in several iconic examples of Beaux-Arts, Georgian and Classical styles. Finally, between 1921 and 1936, Minnesota's fraternity chapters engaged in that same popular building spree which was sweeping across other early private and land grant colleges and universities from New York to California. The result of this last phase was the often stately homes occupied by many Greek chapters today, upgrades from boarding house-style clapboard and stucco homes, to the many Fraternity Row mansions that are visible at Minnesota along University Avenue SE, on 4th and 5th Street SE, and the 10th Avenue "Sorority Row," all in Minneapolis. Similarly, the St. Paul campus is home to several stately chapter buildings, or chapterhouses, along Cleveland Avenue. It is a testament to the alumni of many of these chapters that their buildings survived, as so many were financed by the 1920s financial bubble, having endured weak membership eras during the Great Depression and then the twin turmoils of WWII and 1960s anti-establishment unrest. Past university yearbooks, now digitally available,[33] often picture these buildings, some with addresses and photos or professionally crafted etchings. A final wave of chapter building, usually in the Modernist style, occurred during the period 1950 to 1973.[11]: 17 

Greek societies also provide a visible link with the past. Residential Greek chapters have been cited as architectural gems, "projecting a positive image through architecture, and setting an architectural standard for more than a century."[34] Important examples of period architecture include Tudor with half-timber, Georgian and Federal variants of the American Colonial style, Vienna secessionist, English Gothic, Elizabethan or Georgian, and more recently, International Modernist styles. While many of these buildings are significant, enough to warrant the City of Minneapolis declaring the area a Greek Letter Chapter House Historical District in 2003, a few examples should be noted:

  • Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI) was one of the earliest-built Row mansions, exhibiting the Vienna secessionist style, an offshoot of the Arts and Crafts movement.[35]
  • Gamma Eta Gamma (ΓΗΓ) law fraternity is a smaller example of Richardsonian Revival, perhaps with Queen Anne elements.
  • Theta Tau (ΘΤ), an engineering fraternity, is an example of the International Modernist style.
  • Chi Psi (ΧΨ) is an exceptional variant of an English Tudor country house, "built to convey masculine dignity and prestige."
  • Phi Sigma Kappa (ΦΣΚ) is an Elizabethan-revival Tudor, noted as a "romantic-era masterpiece."
  • Sigma Phi Epsilon (ΣΦΕ), built by B.O. Cutter and restored by Phi Delta Theta fraternity, this "gingerbread" home is a showcase of the Carpenter Gothic revival style.[36]
  • Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ) combines elements of Georgian and Greek revival styles.
  • Kappa Kappa Gamma (ΚΚΓ) offers a "dramatic and striking" mix of the English Tudor style, influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement popular at the time of its construction."[34]

These and many other Minnesota chapterhouses exhibit exceptional elements of their architectural styles. The owners, often the same entities that built these homes, have maintained them in spite of age, sometimes hard use, and the financial strain of student organizations that can ebb and flow in popularity. Addresses may be found in the footnotes for these chapters, where they are listed below. Most style descriptions courtesy of the referenced Architecture Minnesota article.[34]

Constrained somewhat by busy University Avenue and 4th Street, expansion of Greek housing has been discussed at several points. The 2003 Zellie study, cited among the references, notes that there had been planned a "Fraternity Court" in the early 1920s.[11]: 28  This stately road was to have been on the site where Williams Arena was later built, to host a number of new buildings between 19th Avenue and Oak Street. This plan conflicted with the University's own development plan for the basketball arena though, and the Fraternity Court was not built, with the exception of the ΑΧΡ house that later was owned by ΧΦ, then leased by ΚΣ, and in fall 2016 bought by ΘΧ. In the 1960s, an early phase plan for a fraternity housing area on the river flats below the Washington Avenue Bridge was discussed. This plan did not materialize beyond the discussion stage. More recently, Community Student Housing Inc. (CSHI), a consortium of several fraternities, has discussed building shared dormitory space and new house fronts on up to four blocks between University and 4th Street.[citation needed]

Loss of original or long-term Greek properties[edit]

Late 1950s construction of highway 35W resulted in condemnation of multiple fraternity homes bordering what was 9th Avenue SE, many of which were sororities or professional fraternities.[37] In Stadium Village, several stately houses along Washington Avenue SE were lost to commercial development. More recently, restrictive zoning has both helped and harmed chapters, where economics of scale no longer allow viability without remodeling, expansion or additional parking.[38] Some chapters celebrate their buildings' local (or national) historic zone status,[39][40] which has slowed the pace of demolition, while others see this as a cost burden.[41] Nevertheless, some chapter buildings have been lost to multi-unit development, or have been sold to non-Greek buyers. A few examples of still-existing former Greek properties should be noted. Market forces may allow some of these to become available to Greek ownership again:

  • Delta Delta Delta (ΔΔΔ) sorority built the structure at 316 10th Avenue SE in 1917, owning it until at least 2004. The building is now occupied by Luther House, a Christian service group affiliated with the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod. The adjacent building, 314 10th Avenue SE, was home to ΑΦ, then ΚΑΘ, then ΤΚΕ, before being purchased by ΔΔΔ around 1961.
  • Theta Chi (ΘΧ) fraternity built the structure at 315 16th Avenue SE in 1930, owning it until at least 2000, and which was later purchased by a private party. It was renovated as a coffee house and boarding house and is leased by Kappa Pi Alpha (ΚΠΑ) Christian fraternity.
  • Psi Upsilon (ΨΥ) fraternity built the structure at 1721 University Avenue SE, owning it from 1908 to 1941. The Student Co-op was established during WWII and has been a resident in that property ever since.
  • Tau Kappa Epsilon (ΤΚΕ) fraternity built the structure at 1901 University Avenue SE, owning it from 1925 to 1938. In 1982 it was purchased by the YMCA, who sold it to the University in 2000.[42]
  • Chi Omega (ΧΩ) sorority was a long-term owner of the structure at 315 Tenth Avenue SE, owning it from 1927 until at least 1989. Originally built by Zeta Psi (ΖΨ) fraternity, the structure is now owned by the Maranatha Church.
  • Acacia Fraternity owned 1206 Fifth Street SE from 1915 until at least 1968. It had been occupied and then owned by the Heart of the Earth survival school, associated with the American Indian Movement, since 1980. In 2013 the building was purchased by a private developer for residential housing.[43]
  • Kappa Delta (ΚΔ) sorority owned 1025 6th Street SE for almost 50 years, a property now rented out for general student housing.
  • Alpha Delta Pi (ΑΔΠ) sorority built 1000 5th Street SE in 1952, occupying it until their closure in 1987. The building was sold to the Unification Church (the "Moonies"). This property has reverted to Greek ownership in 2017, with the purchase by Kappa Sigma.
  • Kappa Sigma (ΚΣ) fraternity lived at 1125 5th Street SE for over 75 years, moving in 2002. Their former building is now a daycare.
  • Alpha Xi Delta (ΑΞΔ) sorority owned 1115 5th Street SE for almost 40 years. It later was occupied by Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and was sold to a private owner to become a Bed & breakfast. in 2019 it reverted to Greek control, under Alpha Epsilon Pi (ΑΕΠ).

These are examples. Other significant properties along University Avenue, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Streets SE, and the adjacent avenues were once home to Greek chapters and are now in private hands. A search of this page lists addresses where chapters once existed.

Future housing prospects[edit]

The need to improve and expand Greek chapter housing is a priority for fraternities and sororities at Minnesota.[13]: 70  A 2012 University task force report showed that one of the biggest challenges faced by the present Greek System is the occasionally degraded state of chapter buildings.[13]: 78–81  Owned privately by not-for-profit alumni associations, some of these show signs of deferred maintenance. Several recent remodeling and renovation programs have allowed significant improvement to some chapters, including recent full renovations by Chi Psi, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Phi Sigma Kappa, along with completely rebuilt houses for Alpha Gamma Rho, Kappa Sig, and FarmHouse. Lack of housing for fraternity and sororities, a community has now grown to 15% of the student population in 2017 according to the OFSL, remains a hurdle that new groups must overcome. This dearth is only partially remedied by the opening of the new (2013) 17th Avenue Freshman Dorm. This particular project has allowed two ground-level rental suites along University Avenue for chapters new to campus, intended to serve as a long-term incubator.[12]

The Minneapolis City Council approved a number of zoning changes that relaxed restrictions on Greek ownership and renovation of properties near campus in action taken on April 28, 2017. Specific code changes include:

Increases the maximum height of chapter buildings from 2.5 stories to 4.
Removes the requirement that a house may not "serve" more than 32 people, due largely to the uncertainty of the definition of 'serve'.
Allows on-site services to be used by all members or guests.
Allows Greek chapters to acquire properties not previously used as Greek housing.
Reduces minimum lot area from 10,000 square feet to 5,000 square feet.

For a more extensive review of Greek Row buildings, past and present, see the University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Designation Study, as prepared for the Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission in 2003.[11][44]

Greek chapter oversight[edit]

Individual chapters are managed by elected officers. Incorporated alumni groups own the residential chapter buildings where they exist, serving in the role of the property manager. Additional local alumni oversight varies by chapter. National organizations provide organizational and operational guidance, extending to disciplinary action where warranted. In partnership with national organizations, University oversight of the Academic and Social chapters is managed on a day-to-day basis by the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life,[45] a unit of the Office for Student Affairs.[46]

Professional and Honor societies are coordinated at a lower level of administrative involvement by the various academic departments within the University and its several colleges, and of these, some operate merely cooperatively, with no involvement from the University at all.

Since gaining its first chapter in 1874, Minnesota administrators have maintained an open, if not always supportive relationship with its chapters[citation needed]. An impulse to exert administrative management on these highly visible registered student organizations has at times been offset by the interest in limiting liability exposure where it could be claimed that the administration was responsible but did not do enough to prevent an unsafe or illegal occurrence. Minnesota's Greek System has, on balance, avoid the frequency of harmful events, as have occurred at other large schools; this primarily as the result of self-policing.[12][47] The original, more active relationship between the Greeks and the Administration had been marginalized somewhat after the turbulent late 1960s and during the lassaiz-faire commuter-student years of 1970–90. This coincided with national scrutiny and bad publicity over hazing events elsewhere in the US. With the return to a more residential campus, both the Minnesota Greek System and its relationship with the University are thriving: An estimated 2,800 Greeks on campus participate in 58 separate undergraduate Academic and Social chapters.[12] In addition, Professional and honor societies, many accepting undergraduates, number more than 80. Because of this and other factors, the University is again improving its relationship with the Greek Community:

In March 2012, President Kaler announced the formation of a Greek Community Strategic Task Force (GCSTF) and issued a Charge to the GCSTF Steering Committee which emphasized the need to develop a "sustainable and robust relationship between the University and the Greek community."[13]

Criticism[edit]

Over the decades, Minnesota's Greek system, like others nationwide, has had its detractors. Most notably in the late 1960s, anti-establishment agitation resulted in decreased interest and participation. This negative environment abated with the end of the Vietnam War. While membership again surged beginning in the late 1970s, the campus population was swelling even faster. While hitting numeric highs, Greeks at Minnesota thus never achieved the pre-Vietnam era participation level as a percentage of the campus. For some, Greeks were "too exclusive." Commuting students may have had little occasion to socialize with them on the largely non-residential campus. Some students chafed at overt culture differences where Prep-era Greek men would wear blazers and ties to Monday meetings. Occasional surveys of detractors would declare a perception that membership was akin to buying friends.[48] For others, it was simply a monetary concern, with a reluctance to include fraternity or sorority dues into a tight college budget.[48] The hugely popular movie, "Animal House" also branded for a generation the image of a lethargic, disruptive and academically inferior "frat boy" on the national consciousness.[49]

Response to criticism[edit]

Fixing problems[edit]

Greek organizations both nationally and locally sponsor many risk avoidance programs for the real benefits of student safety and well-being, as well as to avoid harmful bad publicity. Hence, these organizations have learned to address criticism quickly: Chapters and national bodies have adopted extensive changes to reduce incidents of hazing and other harmful behaviors. The recent announcement by Sigma Alpha Epsilon to ban "pledging" nationwide is only the latest of such announcements, of revised prospective member programs now adopted by many fraternities.[50] While not limited to fraternities and sororities, harmful activities like underage drinking and hazing are often headlined as local news stories, with fraternity chapters as the most visible examples.[51] In this area too, active and alumni Greek leaders have responded to such negative publicity and the resulting criticism with programs that seek to reduce alcohol abuse and eliminate underage or binge drinking, with risk management training, by self-policing their own chapters, and with more stringent procedures to discipline offenders. All sororities and some fraternity chapters have banned alcohol in their living facilities. National fraternities, through the NIC and sororities through their national and local governing boards require member training each year to combat hazing, underage drinking, sexual assault and other harmful behaviors.[52] Hence, individual chapters are not alone in addressing these problems. Inter-chapter governing boards at Minnesota (listed below by chapter groupings) provide event monitoring services and local risk management training, culminating in the introduction in 2012 of Arkeo, which served as an inter-Greek cooperative monitoring program to help chapters avoid risk.[53][54]

Response to perceptions[edit]

As to the financial cost of participation, fraternity leaders note that the vast majority of Greek students work their way through school.[54] In fact, the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life claims that the average cost burden for fraternity chapter membership adds 3% to a student budget, and may indeed be less costly on a net basis when factoring reduced summer rents and lower live-in costs versus dorms and private apartments. Finally, the Minnesota campus is markedly more residential than thirty years ago. Development of over a dozen large for-profit private dorms and many upgraded apartments has increased the average quality and quantity of near-campus housing and has increased their average expense. The result has been that fraternities and sororities, previously perceived as among the more expensive housing options now range from "in line with" or even lower than the average cost of dorms or apartments.[55][56]

Addressing the claim of exclusivity in recruitment materials, Greek leaders will accept that label as another way of saying they promote high standards. All fraternities are by definition self-selective. But, they clarify, so are all friendships. Further, they state, "U" students all have passed a bar of exclusivity by getting into the increasingly selective University itself. With an array of student groups numbering in the thousands, and a multitude of Greek chapter personalities, fraternity and sorority proponents are confident that all students who wish to join a Greek society can find one where they can flourish.[54] The matter of religious and race exclusivity appears to have passed several generations ago: While some chapters are historically black, Hispanic, or Asian-oriented, there is no race exclusivity or other discrimination exclusivity in any of Minnesota's chapters. All are integrated and have been for some time. Minnesota was the second Big Ten school (after Wisconsin) to see its fraternities and sororities drop all bias clauses (race, color, or creed) from their bylaws and policies. Older chapters have been integrated since the 1950s and 1960s[11] and the multi-cultural Greek chapters since their founding in more recent years.[57]

Benefits to student and campus[edit]

Greek society participation was strongly correlated with a more positive student experience in a study conducted by the Student Organization Development Center in 1987.[58] In 2017, the 60 current chapters of the Inter-fraternity Council, Pan-Hellenic Council, Multicultural Greek Council, and National Panhellenic Council provided 30,000 hours of volunteering in the surrounding community. The organizations also provide fundraising for various organizations in 2017 groups raised $200,000 for various causes.[1]

Minnesota's Fraternity & Sorority system is over 145 years old.

Community Standards Housing Inc. was incorporated by several chapters to improve Greek Housing. While CSHI's proposed Greek Village development for the 1700 block of University Avenue was not adopted in 2011, in March 2012, University President Kaler followed up on his promise at that time with the formation of a Greek Community Strategic Task Force (GCSTF), with the Charge to the group that "emphasized the need to develop a sustainable and robust relationship between the University and the Greek community." He stated, "[The Greeks] get better grades, graduate sooner, and give more money to the University."[citation needed] Under his direction, the UM Foundation has been collecting data on Greek participation for all students, a data point that had been only sporadically kept prior to 2012.[13]

Academic and social fraternities and sororities[edit]

For brevity, the sections below make extensive use of Greek letters, one of the first items in a new member's instruction program. Most fraternities use two or three Greek letters to signify their symbolic or secret names; a few use non-Greek words.[59] The main listing for each fraternity or sorority shows their full name at least once, with references and Wikilinks as available.

Fraternities constituting the Interfraternity Council (IFC)[edit]

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are men's organizations at the University of Minnesota, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the campus IFC. While most IFC chapters are based in Minneapolis, several call St. Paul their home. After a period of level membership, for various reasons, fraternity membership is increasing rapidly. Average chapter size is 50, and several chapters exceed 100 men.

Fraternity buildings are generally owned by chapter alumni organizations. Some chapters are non-residential, while a few rent or lease space.

As part of IFC or national organization self-governance, or University disciplinary action, chapters may be suspended ("de-recognized") or closed for a time. When a chapter is closed and/or forfeits its housing, it will be listed as a dormant chapter. See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current recognized IFC members.
(NIC) indicates members of the North American Interfraternity Conference.
(PFA) indicates members of the Professional Fraternity Association.
(FFC) indicates members of the Fraternity Forward Coalition.

Active academic and social fraternity chapters at Minnesota

Chapters whose names changed

Frontispiece, sorority section – 1916 Minnesota Gopher yearbook.

Sororities constituting the Panhellenic council (PHC)[edit]

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are women's organizations, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the PHC. For convenience, the term "sorority" is used throughout, though some of these organizations are "women's Fraternities," and were so named prior to the popularization of the term, sorority. The terms are synonymous, After a period of level membership representing about 3% of campus women, for various reasons, sorority membership is increasing rapidly. Chapter size in almost all cases now exceeds 120 women.

Interest and recruitment is strong enough that, in 2013, the University of Minnesota was opened to PHC expansion for the first time in 30 years, and the resulting two colonization efforts (welcoming Chi Omega and Phi Mu) occurred in 2013 and 2016, respectively.

Sorority properties are generally owned by a chapter's alumnae club, though some chapters do not have housing, and others rent or lease space. As part of PHC or national organization self-governance, or University disciplinary action, chapters may be suspended ("de-recognized") or closed for a time. If a chapter is closed and/or forfeits its housing, it will be listed as a dormant chapter. See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current PHC members and for expansion support.
(NPC) indicates members of the National Panhellenic Conference.

Active academic and social sorority chapters

Chapters whose names changed

Multicultural (MGC) and national Panhellenic councils (NPHC)[edit]

Originally ethnic or language-affiliated, these organizations are now fully integrated – as are Minnesota's general Greek letter organizations. Their historical affiliation may be reviewed by reading their local or national histories. Some of the men's groups also participate in IFC events, and the women's groups in PHC events.

MGC and NPHC chapters are non-residential. The inter-Greek councils often cooperate on programs and policies, as do individual chapters from among the several Greek councils.

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are either men's or women's organizations, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the larger Multicultural Greek Council (MGC) and for some, in the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC). See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current MGC and NPHC chapters.
(NALFO) indicates members of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations;
(NAPA) indicates members of the National APIDA Panhellenic Association;
(NPHC) indicates members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council;
(NPC) indicates members of the National Panhellenic Conference.

Men's NPHC chapters

ΦΑΤPhi Alpha Tau, 1911–1912 (local), became ΑΦΑ[118]
ΚΑΨKappa Alpha Psi, 1924-1967+, 1978-201x (NPHC, NIC), dormant[232][233]
ΦΒΣPhi Beta Sigma, 1985–89, 2008-201x (NPHC & NIC), dormant[234]

Men's MGC chapters

ΔΛΦDelta Lambda Phi, 1987–2019, (MGC), gay, bi and progressive men, dormant[238][239]
ΣΒΡ – Sigma Beta Rho 2013–2015 (NAPA & NIC), South Asian interest, dormant[240]

Women's NPHC chapters

ΣΓΡSigma Gamma Rho, 1970-2005+ (NPHC), dormant[246]

Women's MGC chapters

Frontispiece, Honor Society section, 1922 Minnesota Gopher yearbook.

Honor, professional, service and recognition societies[edit]

Honorific, professional and service organizations have a similarly long history of activity on the University of Minnesota campus. These are coordinated through academic departments, not the OFSL.[1] They use similar naming conventions for chapter and national organizational hierarchy, and Greek Letters as identification. Some of these are populated by graduate students, a few exclusively so. As a rule, the honor and professional societies focus on specific academic, professional, or service missions. Historically too there has been significant crossover and cooperation between types; some professional societies have revised themselves into non-residential honor groups. In contrast, several professional organizations have gone the other direction to a conference among the academic and social chapters.[254] But most remain oriented toward senior students (including 3rd and 4th year students) and graduate students. Social/academic fraternity or sorority membership is not a requirement for these groups. Individuals who meet a group's criteria may join or be "tapped," or asked to join, as may non-Greek students. Multiple affiliations may be allowable as membership is frequently not exclusive to one group – see individual societies for details. Activity varies; some of the professional and service groups are residential, while the honors societies may meet only quarterly or annually, if at all. The cut-off line where any campus organization falls within these headings or without is by long-established convention; those formed prior to 1990 are listed under the subheadings used by various volumes of the Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities, which for more than a century has been the data source of record for such organizations. Newer groups have been placed in categories similar to Baird's. The latest version of Baird's, 1991, was published before the national development of some of the societies here, and therefore, position and inclusion is, in some cases, assumptive.[74]

The Phi Beta Kappa Key. Minnesota's chapter was formed in 1892.

Honor and recognition societies[edit]

Honor societies recognize students who excel academically or as leaders among their peers, usually within a specific academic discipline. Because of the age, size and research focus of the University of Minnesota, it hosts a wide variety of these organizations. Members commonly include the society on their résumé/CV, which may serve to bolster grad school acceptance, publishing merit, and professional opportunities.

Listed by date of local founding with national conference membership, these are co-ed, non-residential, achievement-based organizations which self-select members based on published criteria.

At graduation, or at times of formal academic processionals, graduates, administrators, PhD holders, and post-doctoral fellows wear academic robes in the colors of their degree, school, and other distinction, according to a voluntary Intercollegiate Code that governs customs such as formal academic regalia. In addition, various colored devices such as stoles, scarfs, cords, tassels, and medallions are used to indicate membership in a student's honor society; cords and mortarboard tassels are most common. Phi Beta Kappa, the first honor society, locally founded at Minnesota in 1892, has used   Pink and   Sky blue since its national founding in 1776. Hence, students tapped for ΦΒΚ may wear tassels or other society-approved items, in these colors. Like most schools, the University of Minnesota allows such regalia for honor society members. Stoles are less common, but they are used by a few honor societies. In academic circles, colors are well-known, and follow long-standing protocols. The ACHS website lists the colors for their 68 member organizations,[255] and the Honor society WP page lists others.

Multi-colored tassels, cords and stoles are noticeable over black graduation robes.

Many honor societies invite students to become members based on scholastic rank (the top x% of a class) and/or grade point, either overall, or for classes taken within the discipline for which the honor society provides recognition. In cases where academic achievement would not be an appropriate criterion for membership, other standards are required for membership (such as completion of a particular ceremony or training program). These societies recognize past achievement. Pledging is not required, and new candidates may be immediately inducted into membership after meeting predetermined academic criteria and paying a one-time membership fee. Some require graduate enrollment. Because of their purpose of recognition, most honor societies will have much higher academic achievement requirements for membership than professional societies. It is also common for a scholastic honor society to add a criterion relating to the character of the student. Some honor societies are invitation only while others allow unsolicited applications. Finally, membership in an honor society might be considered exclusive, i.e., a member of such an organization cannot join other honor societies representing the same field. Governance requires a faculty sponsor and each society remains faculty-guided, usually with alumni input.
(ACHS) indicates members of the Association of College Honor Societies.

Active honor and recognition societies

Chapters whose names changed

Professional societies[edit]

Professional societies work to build friendship bonds among members, cultivate strengths whereby members may promote their profession, and provide mutual assistance in their shared areas of professional study.

Listed by date of local founding with national conference membership (if any), these are primarily co-ed organizations, showing an array of professional interests. Some are residential in a co-operative fashion and all offer a moderate amount of social programming. Membership in a professional fraternity may be gained by the result of a pledge process, much like a social fraternity, and members are expected to remain loyal and active in the organization for life. Within their professional field of study, membership is exclusive; for example, if one joins a law society they cannot join another law society. However, these societies do initiate members who belong to social or honors fraternities. Professional Societies are known for networking and post-collegiate involvement, and membership is often included with pride on a résumé/CV. Governance varies from faculty-managed to purely student run.
(PFA) indicates members of the Professional Fraternity Association.

Active professional societies

Chapters whose names changed

Service societies[edit]

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, if any, these are/were non-residential organizations designed to provide campus and community service. These organizations are self-governed.

Active service societies

Dormant service societies

ΣΑΔSigma Alpha Delta, 1894-1918+, upperclassman women's service organization, dormant[508][74]: VI-548 
Kawa Klub, 1907-19xx (local), junior and senior men's writing club[509]
Cap and Gown, 1908-19xx, senior women's service organization, "to promote friendship and class loyalty among senior women," dormant[510]
Pinafore, 1908-1942+, sophomore women's service organization, "for furthering class spirit and promoting Minnesota loyalty," dormant[511][512]
Tau Shonka, 1908-19xx, sophomore men's interfraternity service, dormant[513]
Styx, pre-1909-1911+ (local), men's service organization, dormant[514]
Tillikum Club, pre-1910-19xx, senior men's interfraternity service, dormant[515]
Triangle Club, pre-1910-19xx, freshmen men's interfraternity service, dormant[516]
Adelphian, pre-1910-19xx, junior men's interfraternity service organization, dormant[517][518]
Mitre, pre-1910-19xx (local), junior men's class organization, dormant[519]
Snake and Skull, pre-1910-19xx (local), sophomore men's class organization, dormant[520]
ΣΤSigma Tau, pre-1911-19xx, senior women's service organization, "... having for the basis of membership, and for the purpose of its existence, the rendering of service to the University ...", dormant[521]
Tam O'Shanter, pre-1913-1942+, junior women's service organization, "to promote a feeling of friendship between the members of the classes," dormant[522]
Bib and Tucker, pre-1913-19xx, freshman women's service organization, "to foster class acquaintanceship," dormant[511][518]
Skin and Bones, 1915-19xx, senior women's class organization, dormant[523]
Skull and Crescent, 1915-19xx, junior men's service organization, dormant[524]
Hestian Club, 1921-19xx, women from outside the Twin Cities, dormant[525]
Yalomed Club, 1921-1926+, DeMolay-affiliated (Masonic) service club, dormant[526]
ΑΦΧAlpha Phi Chi, pre-1931-1966+, coordinated men's fraternal intramural sports, dormant[527]
ΠΦΧPi Phi Chi, pre-1941-1965+ (local), inter-fraternity service for professional fraternities, dormant[528]
ΓΣΣGamma Sigma Sigma, 1957–1972+ women's service organization, dormant[529][530]

Religious-themed fraternities and sororities[edit]

Primarily active during the 1940s and 1950s, these groups were formed in response to student interest in Greek life for those who required a closer association with peers of the same faith tradition. Some were local organizations, some national. Some were residential, and all were co-ed unless noted. Note that some religious-themed and residential fraternities and sororities are listed under the Academic and Social groups by their choice. Many other religious-oriented groups on campus are NOT designed to resemble fraternities, and are not listed here. Groups are listed by date of local founding.

Active religious service societies

Dormant religious service societies

Menorah Society, 1903-1931+, Jewish Service, merged with Hillel Society[11]: A-3, 4 [535]
Newman Club, 1903–1968+, Catholic co-ed service, dormant[536]
ΚΦKappa Phi, 1919–1980+, Methodist and Episcopal women's service, dormant[537][538]
Wesley Foundation, 1920-1968+, Methodist co-ed service, dormant[539]
Northrop Club, 1920-1944+ (local), Congregational women's service, dormant[540]
ΚΚΛKappa Kappa Lambda, 1921–1968+ (local), Lutheran (~ELCA) women's service, dormant[541]
ΧΚΑChi Kappa Alpha, 1925–1928, Presbyterian, dormant[542]
ΦΤΘPhi Tau Theta, 1925–1951 (became ΣΘΕ), Men's Methodist service, dormant[543]
ΦΧΔPhi Chi Delta, 1926-1952+ (local?), Presbyterian and Congregational women's service, dormant[544]
Folwell Club, 1929-19xx (local), Co-ed Episcopal service, dormant[545]
ΓΔGamma Delta, 1935–1969, Lutheran (Missouri Synod) service; today, see University Lutheran Chapel and Luther House[546]
Kadimah Society, 1937-1943+ (local), Zionist society, dormant[547][548]
Canterbury Club, 1941-1959+, (local?), Episcopal co-ed service, dormant[549]
ΔΚΦDelta Kappa Phi, 1942–1966+ (local), Lutheran (~ELCA) men's service, residential for a short time, dormant[550]

Other student organizations[edit]

The 2019–20 University of Minnesota Student Group search page included over 1,100 unique organizations. Major groupings include Greek-affiliation societies as listed on this page, which are further subdivided into academic/social, honors, professional societies, service groups, or recognition groups.[551]

References[edit]

For active groups, stable chapter website links have been referenced when available. Alternatively, either a national website or the group's University of Minnesota portal has been noted, which, in turn, may provide contact information and/or a link to a current organization website as reported annually at the time of the group's registration. Student groups are required to register each year, making the University of Minnesota portal page a convenient place to find up-to-date contact information.

Where an address is noted these are from (A) Minnesota Gopher yearbooks dated 1888–1967, (B) chapter websites, (C) national organization websites, (D) The Conservancy website, showing annual Student Organization Directories, or (E) the Zellie Fraternity Row study for the City of Minneapolis Historical Preservation Commission, cited below.

  1. ^ a b c d Statistics according to the 2017 OFSL View Book, p.18. Retrieved November 10, 2017. See also Regent minutes from March 2018 docket, p.27, referencing Greek participation. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  2. ^ a b There is one exception to this usage rule, where normally, men's and co-ed groups call themselves "fraternities." The music sorority Tau Beta Sigma is co-educational and its male and female members are members of the sorority.
  3. ^ Here, "old line" means that they were founded nationally prior to the American Civil War.
  4. ^ "Prexy's" name is spelled NORTHROP, not NORTHRUP, although scattered typos may be found throughout Gopher yearbooks.
  5. ^ Contrary to persistent but understandable misinformation, President Northrop was NOT an Alpha Delt, but an Alpha Sig. There is a typo in the 1890 Minnesota Gopher yearbook that mistakenly says Northrop Sr. was an Alpha Delt. See the Talk Page for a complete explanation. Note also that Northrop's son, Cyrus JUNIOR was also a member of Deke, this time at the Minnesota chapter. See ΔΚΕ's national history, p.392. Retrieved June 11, 2014
  6. ^ Per the University of Minnesota, multiple sources, including the Gopherlink directory of student organizations. Note that the distinctions may blur: One academic sorority is Christian-themed, whereas a new Jewish sorority prefers to be listed as religious, versus academic in nature. The fraternity Alpha Phi Alpha is listed among both the NIC fraternities and the NPHC chapters.
  7. ^ Gopher yearbooks are available online via the University of Minnesota Library, accessed 17 August 2022.
  8. ^ The yearbook ended annual full-format publication in 1966. After a long hiatus with a couple of false starts, a revived full-format version is planned for 2015, to be published by Jostens. Retrieved May 28, 2014
  9. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook archive is available digitally. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  10. ^ See any Minnesota Gopher Yearbook during this decade, which list the names of senior class members and the clubs to which they belonged.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Carole Zellie (2003). "University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Designation Study, prepared for the Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission". Author's firm: Landscape Research, St. Paul, MN: 3–4 of 180, and cited throughout by Appendix chapter entry. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ a b c d The University of Minnesota / Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life annual report Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 27, 2014
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  14. ^ This number includes both Minneapolis and St. Paul collegiate chapter housing, counting residential Academic and Social fraternities and sororities, the Evans Scholars honor society, residential Professional societies and ΚΠΑ religious service society. Several chapters maintain two buildings.
  15. ^ The Little Brown Jug is the oldest shared trophy. However, the oldest rivalry, in terms of games played is the Minnesota vs. Wisconsin series.
  16. ^ Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1922, p.250. Retrieved May 12, 2020. Due to publishing timing, the 1922 yearbook was produced for that class year, with writing and editing begun in the 1920 academic year. So yearbooks often lag in dating of then-current events.
  17. ^ Dent, Jim (2003). Monster of the Midway: Bronko Nagurski, the 1943 Chicago Bears, and the Greatest Comeback Ever (1st ed.). Thomas Dunne Books, an imprint of St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-30867-1. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  18. ^ Noted by Windy City Gridiron, in a blog post about Nagurski's impact as a Chicago Bear, by A.A. Czuba, January 28, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  19. ^ WWI service ended, for Baston, his options for a career playing football professionally; upon recuperating from WWI injuries he was already a war hero as he started his coaching career: Baston had been awarded the Navy Cross, cited for Extraordinary Heroism from his actions in WWI at Belleau Woods. He was a Marine Captain of the Devil Dogs.
  20. ^ Baston is profiled among Minnesota sports legends in the 1922 yearbook, on p.279.
  21. ^ Staff writer(s); no by-line. (January–February 1930). Chester W. Cleveland (ed.). "Southern California and Minnesota Chapters Set New All-Fraternity All-American Records". The Magazine of Sigma Chi. 49 (1): 96.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Other notable Greek football players from Minnesota elected to the College Football Hall of Fame include George Franck, who was a member of Phi Delta Theta, playing from 1938 to 1940, and elected in 2002. His team won a national championship in his senior year. Franck later went on to play for the NFL's Giants. Paul Giel was a member of Phi Kappa, which later merged into Phi Kappa Theta, playing from 1951 to 1953, and being inducted into the 'Hall in 1975. Coach Lou Holtz, elected to the College Football of Fame in 2008, had been a member of Delta Upsilon at Kent State University. John McGovern was a member of Alpha Tau Omega, playing from 1908 to 1910, and elected to the 'Hall in 1966. Leo Nomellini was a member of Delta Chi, playing from 1946 to 1949, and elected in 1977. Eddie Rogers was a member of the law fraternity Phi Delta Phi, playing from 1900 to 1903, with election to the 'Hall in 1968. He was also named to the American Indian Athletic Hall of Fame in 1973. Finally, Ed Widseth was a member of FarmHouse fraternity who played from 1934 to 1936, and was elected to the 'Hall in 1954. He was an All-American, and played for the NFL Giants. This reference, and the text of the main page – along with Bud Grant – lists just members of the College Football Hall of Fame from Minnesota who were Greeks; there were many other varsity football players who were fraternal men. Similarly, nationally recognized athletes of other varsity sports were fraternity and sorority members.
  23. ^ Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1922, p.344
  24. ^ Minnesota Hockey's Team Award Winners. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  25. ^ According to Phi Sigma Kappa historical records, Pond was often quoted as saying that their [DeForrest, Swanson, Bros and Pond's] actions resulted in the Regents' decision to grant varsity status to the hockey team a full five years before it would naturally have occurred.
  26. ^ Beta Deuteron historian (2013). Office of the Archivist (ed.). Phi Sigma Kappa (U of MN) Archive: Chapter history and chapter roster. 218 Elmer L. Andersen Library, 222 21st Ave. So., Minneapolis, MN 55455: Triton Corp., alumni association – via University of Minnesota.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  27. ^ Whiteside had competed in the Duluth summer league under legendary coach James (Dad) Ten Eyck of Syracuse, who visited Duluth that year with Chuck Whiteside, Sox' uncle, who was coach of the Harvard Crew. At the University, Whiteside organized 4-man teams from senior honor societies the Iron Wedge and Grey Friars in a competition on Cap and Gown Day, aimed to foster rowing. Later, he went on to coach the Minneapolis Rowing Club and Lake Calhoun Rowing Club for four decades, where his teams won the Lipton Cup at the International championships in 1950 and 1951. Sox served as a promoter of his sport and national secretary of the Northwestern International Rowing Association (NWIRA) until 1970. The NWIRA Senior Lightweight Doubles trophy is named after him.
  28. ^ Minnesota Daily May 11, 1926, p.1 article.
  29. ^ For example, the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1928, p.184, editorializing stridently this purpose.
  30. ^ go%20to%20semesters%20next%20year A change in State law required that all Minnesota colleges and universities adopt a semester calendar by 1999, as noted in this MinnState.edu article. Retrieved July 18, 2020. Prior to 1999, the University's campus academic year was divided into quarters, not semesters.
  31. ^ The Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1932, describes the earliest days of the Penny Carnival. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  32. ^ Carni was noted for its 75th anniversary in a governor's proclamation of May 5, 1989, noting that year's planned support of the Ronald McDonald House. Ultimately, the event was cancelled that Spring. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  33. ^ Past university yearbooks. Retrieved May 2, 2022 and earlier; these volumes are the primary references for this article.
  34. ^ a b c Bruce N. Wright (November–December 1994). Eric Kudalis (ed.). "School Days". Architecture Minnesota: 24–27.
  35. ^ a b FIJI maintains a policy for its members that severely limits display of its Greek letters to a handful of approved usages, such as their official ring, chapter plaques and memorial markers. When originally written, this article omitted FIJI's Greek letters, in respect for that tradition. However, another editor adamantly pressed that Wikipedia is not bound by that rule, and for consistency with other pages has adjusted the entry to use Greek letters.
  36. ^ This building changed hands several times during the 1990s. It had been occupied by ΘΔΧ (Theta Delta Chi), a chapter that went dormant in 1984. Neighboring Phi Delt purchased the property and remodeled it extensively but was unable to sell their previous home, an International Modernist building that has now been replaced by The Cluster. Due to the financial burden and other factors, Phi Delt closed ten years later. The restored B.O. Cutter building was purchased by Sigma Phi Epsilon who themselves had failed to purchase their historic home at 1617 University Avenue SE when that property was acquired by next door Sigma Chi. These summary notes are from the previously referenced Zellie study.
  37. ^ Highway 35W itself now follows the exact path of what was 9th Avenue SE through this neighborhood. It had run where the median between the north and southbound sides of the highway run today, from roughly 2nd Street SE to 8th Street SE, having absorbed the higher numbered portion of the 800 blocks of the streets crossing it, and the lower-numbered addresses on the 900 blocks of these streets. For example, the previous building that stands where now ΑΧΩ is situated, at 915 University Ave. SE once had a tennis court extending on its property exactly where the highway frontage road and entrance/exit ramps now run. Researchers can infer the original street grid and view how the highway was situated with a Google maps search.
  38. ^ Lack of parking was an acute problem for students of earlier decades, regularly cited as a leading complaint in student surveys. The University is more residential today, and its remaining commuters increasingly use mass transit, whereas earlier generations of commuters relied on automobiles at a higher percentage. This follows a generational trend according to USPIRG, in an article accessed May 8, 2015.
  39. ^ University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Historic District, City of Minneapolis website. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  40. ^ For example, FIJI's acceptance of U.S. National Register of Historic Places status.
  41. ^ Extensive testimony on this subject was provided pursuant to the creation in October 2003 of the University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Historic District, in public meetings of the Heritage Preservation Commission and the Minneapolis City Council between May–October 2003.
  42. ^ In 2000 the "Y" moved just down the street to 1801 University, after completion of a new building that replaced a large clapboard home there. This property, too, represented a loss to Greek housing, as the former building had been the Pi Kappa Alpha (ΠΚΑ) annex, and which was sold after a short term cessation of their operations in the late 1990s. 1901 University today houses the departments of Global Programs, the Minnesota International Center, and the School of Kinesiology, according to YMCA history and the University directory. Retrieved March 17, 2015
  43. ^ Restored in 2014, developer Roman Gadaskin renovated this building and the adjacent Hoy Building into multiunit housing for a total of 23 bedrooms, according to City planning minutes. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  44. ^ City of Minneapolis Historic District web link. Retrieved June 26, 2014
  45. ^ Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  46. ^ Office for Student Affairs. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  47. ^ Hank Nuwer's list of global hazing incidents does not show Minnesota among its extensive list of 'troubled' schools. Retrieved May 27, 2014
  48. ^ a b Greek Action Committee Recruitment survey, 1984, IFC archives. Retrieved June 16, 2014
  49. ^ "Animal House" - Hugely popular, this movie was a National Lampoon parody of writer Chris Miller's experiences at 1960s-era Dartmouth. at IMDb
  50. ^ Sigma Alpha Epsilon Bans Pledging Nationwide In Effort To Stop Hazing, as reported by the Huffington Post's Tyler Kingkade on March 11, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014
  51. ^ Studies show that underage and binge drinking are more prevalent nationally among student-athletes, Greek system members, and organization members, with the most significant grouping less affected by the problem being commuter students that live at home. See the Center for Science in the Public Interest: fact sheet Archived October 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 2, 2014, and the Association of College Unions International, and their 2012 analysis by Elizabeth Atwood. Retrieved July 2, 2014, for further reference.
  52. ^ NIC Standards statement accessed November 21, 2018.
  53. ^ State of the Greek Community, 2013 Report Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 11, 2014
  54. ^ a b c Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life risk management statement on "Defying the Stereotypes" Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 12, 2014
  55. ^ StarTrib article on resurgence of interest in Greek Life. Retrieved September 4, 2016
  56. ^ For reference, see the 2016 Interfraternity Council recruitment book, p.8. The book examines Sept–May average costs of living in a fraternity house of $6,544 (which includes room and board, fees, meals, utilities, social expenses, etc.) to the cost for similar double-occupancy dorm living of $8,100 which includes 14 meals and utilities, but no social fees or parking. These average expenses both compare favorably to living in a private apartment with an average cost of $10,056, which does not include meals, parking or social events, and which requires a sublease if the apartment is vacated during the summer months. Sorority living expenses may be higher, with increased services. For further analysis of these costs, see University Housing Services. The analysis is more involved than can be fully treated here due to space limitations.
  57. ^ The University Department of Equal Opportunity requires all members of University communities to adhere to this standard, but has not seen a need for intervention in Minnesota's fully integrated community of Greek chapters. Retrieved June 11, 2014
  58. ^ Harrold, R., et al. The Greek Experience: A Study of Fraternities and Sororities at the University of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: Student Organization Development Center, 1987
  59. ^ Within NIC fraternities, there are three active nationals which have adopted non-Greek letter names: Acacia, FarmHouse, and Triangle. Early in the fraternity movement a few nationals used Latin names, such as Q.T.V., but these were short-lived. No current NPC sororities have non-Greek letter names, nor do any of the multicultural or NPHC groups. The non-NPC sorority Clovia on the St. Paul campus has a non-Greek letter name, as do several professional, honor and religious national organizations.
  60. ^ ΧΨ's Alpha Nu chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  61. ^ ΧΨ's Alpha Nu chapter. Retrieved May 19, 2014. Installed May 6, 1874. Address in 1883: 1515 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. Three ΧΨ houses – which the Fraternity calls "Lodges" – have been on this same lot, the second built in 1902 and the latest built in 1930. This chapter vacated its building during the height of WWII (1943–44) to share temporary housing at 1129 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (the FIJI building).
  62. ^ a b c d e The 1925 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook provides a retrospective of earlier decades at the University, including the WWI era. The article reports enthusiastic support of the war effort by the student body (called the Great War at the time), noting specifically that "the Psi Upsilon house was taken over for officers quarters, and the Alpha Delta Phi house became the medical headquarters. The Chi Psi and Theta Delta Chi houses constituted the student health service, while Phi Kappa Psi was hostess house." See pages 50–54 (scanned pages 56–60). Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q The 1944 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook carried an extensive piece on WWII-era fraternity housing challenges, see actual pages 156–175 (the online yearbook browser has these at its scanned pages 196–215). Retrieved February 24, 2017. Roster changes and special elections made for a blur of activity, where in some cases a chapter might have had three presidents in a single year due to deployments. Some chapters fully ceased operations; for consistency those who were closed for two years or more are noted on this page with a gap. Others operated at a minimal level, returning to normal operations only after 1945.
  64. ^ ΔΤΔ's Beta Eta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed March 23, 1883. Address by 1908: 1009 University Ave. SE, address by 1922: 1717 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. (Zellie notes this building was erected in 1921.) The chapter vacated its building during the height of WWII due to enlistments, but maintained its charter from 1943 to 1944 at an alumnnus' home at 4313 West 42nd Street, Minneapolis, MN. The chapter was reestablished at war's end. A fire in the summer of 2022 prompted the chapter to temporarily relocate to 1829 University Ave. SE, the home of ΖΨ, while renovations were completed over the Fall 2022 semester.
  65. ^ ΦΚΨ's Minnesota Beta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed March 2, 1888. Address in 1900: 303 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1907: 1609 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. Note: during the height of WWII (1943–44) the chapter resided at 1208 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  66. ^ ΣΧ's Alpha Sigma chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  67. ^ ΣΧ's Alpha Sigma Chapter website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Installed Dec 7, 1888. Address in 1914: 1103 4th St., Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1926 and rebuilding on the same site in 1927: 1623 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. This chapter vacated its property during the height of WWII (1943–44) to share the Delta Chi building at 1601 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Added adjacent 1617 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN about 1994.
  68. ^ ΒΘΠ's Beta Pi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  69. ^ ΒΘΠ's Beta Pi Chapter website. Retrieved Nov 21, 2018. Installed Oct 1, 1889. Address in 1900: 1625 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day, razed and rebuilt on site in 1928. Due to enlistments, during the height of WWII this chapter vacated its building to take temporary housing at 1005 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  70. ^ ΔΚΕ's Phi Epsilon chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed Nov 7, 1889. Address in 1906: 1711 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day, with the current building completed in 1930. During the height of WWII (1943–44) this chapter vacated its building to take a temporary address at 429 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  71. ^ The Baird's Manual archive indicates the first members of this chapter came from a schism that formed within Phi Delta Theta, forcing the Phi Delt chapter to restart after a year of dormancy.
  72. ^ ΦΓΔ's Mu Sigma chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  73. ^ Fiji's Mu Sigma chapter website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Installed March 30, 1890. Address by 1892: 619 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1908–11: 1212 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1911: 1129 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day, with the exception of temporary housing during the height of WWII (1943–44) at 1601 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (Delta Chi's building).
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Anson, Jack L.; Marchenasi, Robert F., eds. (1991) [1879]. Baird's Manual of American Fraternities (20th ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Baird's Manual Foundation, Inc. pp. II-115. ISBN 978-0963715906.. Baird's Manual is also available online here: The Baird's Manual Online Archive homepage.
  75. ^ ΑΔΦ's Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  76. ^ ΑΔΦ's Minnesota chapter website. Retrieved May 19, 2014. Installed Feb 22, 1892. Address in 1900: 1214 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1910: 1725 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. May have lived briefly at 1128 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (need confirmation ?) while current home was constructed in 1924. Razed and then built on the same site at 1725 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1924, through present day This chapter vacated its building during the height of WWII (1943–44) for temporary housing at 1127 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  77. ^ ΔΧ's Minnesota chapter portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed April 11, 1892. Address in 1914: 1108 4th Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 1601 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it remodeled extensively in 1922, through present day.
  78. ^ For approximately 18 months during WWII, ΔΧ hosted at least one other fraternity in its building, ΣΧ, which had vacated its own house for use by the military.
  79. ^ ΖΨ's Alpha Beta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  80. ^ ΖΨ's Alpha Beta Chapter noted on their national website. Retrieved July 11, 2017. Installed Aug 26, 1899. Address prior to 1914: 1029 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914–'26: 315 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (later owned for many decades by ΧΩ sorority). In 1926–'27, built 1829 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it owns (but leased between 2008 and 2017 to Sigma Pi). ΖΨ recolonized in the spring of 2016, and reoccupied 1829 University Ave SE in September 2017. After a fire at 1717 University, ΖΨ leased their building to ΔΤΔ temporarily, during the Fall of 2022.
  81. ^ a b c d Fraternities which had once been members occasionally have withdrawn from the NIC without impact on campus involvement and inter-Greek governance. In 2002, ΦΔΘ and ΚΣ elected to leave the NIC. ΦΣΚ withdrew in 2002 but rejoined in 2006. ΛΧΑ severed ties in 2015. In 2016, ΤΚΕ resigned its membership. In 2019, ΣΦΕ resigned its membership. Later, some of these have joined forces to form the Fraternity Forward Coalition.
  82. ^ ΚΣ's Beta Mu chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed Mar 28, 1901. Address in 1910–20: 1107 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1924 or earlier: 1125 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1930: 1018 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.(Zellie, p. A-58) Address in 1931: 307 16th Avenue SE, while building on the 1125 5th site. Moved back to 1125 5th Street SE in 1933 and remaining there through 2002 when structural deficiencies prompted the actives to rent alternative housing. Note: 1125 5th Street SE was leased to Zeta Tau Alpha sorority during 1943–44 at the height of WWII, while wartime Kappa Sigs shared space with Phi Delt at 1027 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 2002 to 2016: 315 19th Avenue SE. After 15 years this property, leased from a private landlord, was vacated before the fall 2016 term for occupancy by Theta Chi. Address in fall 2016 through spring of 2018 was in several leased locations. In Spring 2017 the fraternity purchased 1000 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, occupying the building in Fall 2018. During 2017 the building was fully renovated by adding a third floor. This purchase coincided with a relaxation of zoning restrictions on Greek-owned properties, approved by the City Council in April 2017.
  83. ^ ΣΑΕ's Minnesota Alpha chapter website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Installed Jan 27, 1902. Address in 1909–28: 1121 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (which later housed ΦΜ and then ΣΔΤ). In 1929 they moved to 1805 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN for a year, while building 1815 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, residing there through the present day. The chapter briefly resided at 315 19th Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, during the height of WWII (1943–44).
  84. ^ a b c National sorority ΣΑΕΠ was so named in honor of assistance provided by ΑΕΠ fraternity to the new sorority on its founding campus (UC Davis). Marking this, the letter Sigma represents "Sisters of" in the name SAEPi. This is not to imply a 1980's style "little sisters" program. There is no corporate linkage between the national fraternity and national sorority. Name similarity to ΣΑΕ fraternity is merely coincidental.
  85. ^ ΑΤΩ's Gamma Nu chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  86. ^ ΑΤΩ's Gamma Nu chapter website Archived September 18, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed March 8, 1902. Address in 1914: 1018 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 19xx: 1201 5th Street SE. Address in 1924–25: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (a former ΠΒΦ house, Zellie notes, p.A-116, that this was during construction of their home at 1821 University Ave.), but this seems early. Address by 1927: 1821 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. During WWII, for approximately a year, ΑΤΩ vacated their home, taking temporary housing at 525 10th Ave. E., Minneapolis, MN, according to the 1945 Student Organization directory. In June 2020 they leased their building to Chi Omega sorority, and maintain an active, non-residential chapter.
  87. ^ a b c d In May 2020 five fraternities – Alpha Epsilon Pi (ΑΕΠ), Alpha Sigma Phi (ΑΣΦ), Alpha Tau Omega (ΑΤΩ), Kappa Alpha Order (ΚΑ Order), and Theta Chi (ΘΧ) – established the Fraternity Forward Coalition (FFC). Alpha Epsilon Pi, Alpha Sigma Phi, and Theta Chi have since not renewed membership in the NIC, leaving Alpha Tau Omega as the sole member of both the NIC and FFC. In a press release, Gordy Heminger, a coalition organizer, stated, "We look forward to partnering with the North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC) and other similar organizations advocating on behalf of fraternities."
  88. ^ ΣΝ's Gamma Tau chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed Dec 10, 1904. Address in 1908: 400 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1912: 915 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. May have stayed one year at 922 University while new home was built. Leased the 915 University building to ΣΑΜ. Moved to 307 16th Avenue SE in 1931. Briefly during WWII (1943–44), resided at 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  89. ^ ΦΣΚ's Beta Deuteron chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016, and Beta Deuteron Chapter website. Retrieved July 25, 2015
  90. ^ Predecessor group, the FLX Club, had three successive rental properties in Dinkytown. Installed May 12, 1910. Address in 1910: According to the chapter's history, at installation they were renting an apartment on "15th Avenue SE," Minneapolis, MN, but the record does not note the specific address. Address in 1911: The history continues, "Then came a move to 12th Avenue SE," similarly listed without a specific address. Address in 1912–15: 1820 University Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (where the Fieldhouse stands). This address is certainly correct, though the 1914 Yearbook omits the "1" from 1820 in its listing. Chapter historical records note that Phi Sigma Kappa was next door to the Alpha Xi Delta sorority, which was at 1800 University Avenue at this time. Address from 1915 to 1928: 1018 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, where the Flo-Co apartments now stand. To buy this building, the chapter worked toward a purchase for several years, signing a contract in Nov 1919, and finally completing the sale with a small mortgage in April 1922. In 1926 designed, and in 1928, built 317 18th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside today. Note, this chapter, like all fraternities, reduced its activity during WWII due to enlistments, and leased its property for use by the Army during 1943–44.
  91. ^ Frank Prentice Rand (1923). Phi Sigma Kappa: A History 1873 – 1923. Northampton, Massachusetts: The Council of Phi Sigma Kappa, via The Kingsbury Print.
  92. ^ ΑΦΑ's Mu chapter University of Minnesota website link. Retrieved May 19, 2014. Installed April 12, 1912. Non-residential.
  93. ^ Note that ΑΦΑ's local alumni or "graduate" chapter, called their Gamma Xi Lambda chapter has a separate name designation and founding date (1946), according to the fraternity's website.
  94. ^ ΣΑΜ's Kappa chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed Dec 17, 1915. Address in 1925: 410 11th Avenue SE. Address in 1926: 702 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 1529 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1928 to 1965 (sold in 1962, leased back for three years), 915 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (from Sigma Nu, and eventually sold to ΑΧΩ); later, part of this property was taken for highway egress. Address from 1965 to 1977: 311 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΑΓΔ house) Address in 1977: 928 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  95. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Many Jewish themed chapters formed in the first half of the 20th Century, but consolidated or closed in the decades after WWII. The Sanua reference, "Going Greek," provides an extensive discussion on this trend. A summary is on the Talk page. For the purpose of this article, former organizations with Jewish roots are thus noted. Active groups, even with noteworthy Jewish heritage are not specifically labeled as such, except where a group continues to specify Jewish culture as an organizational objective. (Other affinity groups are similarly noted.) The rest have adopted a more general, or interfaith or secular model.
  96. ^ ΑΣΦ's Rho chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed March 28, 1916. Address from 1916 to 1921: 1103 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1921 to 1935: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (a home originally built for Earl Browne, then owned by John Martin, purchased by ΑΣΦ in 1921, and now home to ΤΚΕ). The chapter closed in 1935. At its 2013 recolonization the fraternity used rental space at Coffman Union for meetings, with housing in several rented apartments. Address in 2018: 1018 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (formerly the William H. Condit house, and later occupied by ΑΤΩ, ΑΧΩ, then ΚΣ, all prior to WWII.)
  97. ^ ΣΦΕ's Minnesota Alpha chapter U of MN portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  98. ^ Installed on April 15, 1916. Address by 1920 until 1926: 1009 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 703 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. By 1928 they'd moved to: 1617 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (Zellie notes this was built for them in 1926). The chapter lost this house in 1934, moving to 420 Oak Street SE and closing in 1941. Address in 1956: 1120 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1978 to 1994: 1115 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (now the Wales House B&B, it had for a long time been Alpha Xi Delta). Address in 1994: 400 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  99. ^ ΑΓΡ's Lambda chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  100. ^ ΑΓΡ's Lambda Chapter website. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Address by 1925 or earlier: 1485 Cleveland Ave No, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1965 or earlier: 2060 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN, through present day. The 1975 Student Activities Directory lists them at 2062 Carter Ave. Postal service change?
  101. ^ ΤΚΕ's Theta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed March 10, 1917. Address in 1924: 1115 4th Street SE. Address from 1925 to 1938?: 1901 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, (now the YMCA). Address in 1939: 1410 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1940: 308 18th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Post-WWII recolonization date was April 8, 1948. Address in 1956, perhaps as early as 1951: 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (the right side of the former ΔΔΔ house). Address in the 1980s: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (per Zellie, p.A-77). Address in 2014: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. Previously housing several fraternities, this home was originally built for Earle Brown, then owned by John Martin.
  102. ^ ΠΚΑ'a Beta Chi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Address from 1925: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1927 to 1936: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address after 1986 re-colonization, 400 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1990: 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, a building they maintained until the 2006 recolonization through today. They'd also controlled 1801 University until 2000, but sold that building, which has since been razed and rebuilt as a YMCA.
  103. ^ Triangle's Minnesota Chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed Oct 29, 1922. Address by 1925: 1227 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. The Fraternity has two addresses today, the first of which dates from 1965, or earlier: 521 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΣΚ sorority house) and 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. (Zellie has a typo, stating 541 12th Street SE. Previous occupants of 1112 6th include ΔΖ, ΖΤΑ, ΦΜ, and ΔΥ, see Zellie p.A-97)
  104. ^ ΘΧ's Alpha Pi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Address by 1925 (earlier as Thulanian) to 1929: 1027 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (or 1029 4th?: address may be typo or postal adjustment, see 1926 yearbook). Address in 1929–2000: 315 16th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built. (Note, during WWII the chapter resided at 1227 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.) Address in 2013, 326 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address beginning in the September 2016: 315 19th Avenue SE. Purchased by Theta Chi in 2016, this property had been owned by a private landlord since ~1989. He had leased it first to Delta Lambda Phi (1990–~1992) and then Kappa Sigma (2002–2016). To complete the historical record, the home had been built by Alpha Rho Chi to serve as the head of a planned Fraternity Court where Williams Arena was later built. Then Chi Phi (not Chi Psi) resided there from 1946 until 1990 (1994?). Theta Chi's U of M portal lists No. 2 840 18th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN as an address. Retrieved October 1, 2018, even while they reside at 315 19th Ave. SE.
  105. ^ FarmHouse's Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  106. ^ FarmHouse's Minnesota Chapter website. Retrieved May 21, 2014. Installed April 22, 1931. Address by 1943: 1485 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN. The 1966 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook mentions a new home built for the fraternity in 1962, where they reside yet today: 1505 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN
  107. ^ ΑΕΠ's Mu Upsilon chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  108. ^ Originated as a colony in 1948. Address in 1949: 1704 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1956: 526 11th Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2013: 1100 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2019: 1115 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  109. ^ a b c d e f Sanua, Marianne R. (2003). Rischen, Moses; Sarna, Jonathan D. (eds.). Going Greek: Jewish College Fraternities in the United States 1895–1945. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press. p. 335. ISBN 0-8143-2857-1.
  110. ^ ΔΣΦ at Minnesota has rented several properties. During the 1980s effort they rented 312 16th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, a white, clapboard building that has now been razed. Address in Fall, 2019: 701 15th Avenue SE, Apt. 322, Minneapolis, MN.
  111. ^ The Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, notes ΔΣΦ as closing in 1971, but this is inaccurate. They had a short-term revival in the mid-1980s. These were colonies only until Spring of 2022 when they were designated as the Iota Phi chapter.
  112. ^ a b ΒΧΘ's Lambda chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  113. ^ a b ΒΧΘ's national website, chapter list showing Lambda chapter at Minnesota. Retrieved May 20, 2014. Installed Aug 28, 2006. Non-residential in 2020.
  114. ^ ΣΠ's Iota-Zeta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed April 12, 2008. Address from 2008 to 2017: 1829 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, vacating when that building was re-occupied by its owner, Zeta Psi fraternity in a long-planned move. As of fall 2016, Sigma Pi had secured an annex at 1023 University Ave., SE, Minneapolis, MN, and in 2017 it leased the house next door, 1027 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, which had been suddenly vacated by Delta Upsilon.
  115. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1892, p.85, notes "Theta Phi became the Mu chapter of Psi Upsilon on Friday, May 22, 1891". The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1893, p.145, shows former ΘΦ members now as part of ΨΥ. According to a note in the 1890 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, the name Theta Phi was not formally adopted until the spring of 1881.
  116. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.487, and on ΘΧ's Alpha Pi chapter website. Retrieved June 3, 2014. Address in 1914: 1027 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  117. ^ The whimsical, faux-French name of this group was pronounced "Hobo".
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Per Baird's Manual Archive, U of MN listing: William Raimond Baird; Carroll Lurding (eds.). "Almanac of Fraternities and Sororities (Baird's Manual Online Archive)". Student Life and Culture Archives. University of Illinois: University of Illinois Archives. Retrieved September 6, 2021. The main archive URL is The Baird's Manual Online Archive homepage.
  119. ^ First noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1891, p.96, listed as the newest of the fraternities. "Social and literary in its scope, combining good fellowship with intellectual development, and founded up on a high moral basis." Formed Mar 28, 1890.
  120. ^ a b Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America, a history, pp.887–888. Retrieved June 11, 2014
  121. ^ a b Note, there were two Alpha Tau Deltas at Minnesota. The earlier was a local chapter that became ΑΤΩ men's fraternity, and which may have been organized for that sole purpose. Two decades later the Beta chapter of Alpha Tau Delta professional nursing fraternity was formed here. In 1970, that national, formerly a women's group, became co-educational. There is a note in the Baird's Archive, which may indicate a revision to the information in Baird's 8th ed., that this predecessor chapter was named Alpha Tau Lambda. Which is correct?
  122. ^ Had been noted on the 2017 Acacia colony website, history page. Retrieved June 14, 2017, now offline.
  123. ^ Address in 1914: 703 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  124. ^ Beta Deuteron Chapter archives item: A Brief History of Beta Deuteron of Phi Sigma Kappa." FLX resided in three successive rented quarters in what became Dinkytown and on the site of the Fieldhouse, culminating at 820 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, a year after chartering as Phi Sigma Kappa.
  125. ^ Address in 1914: 1300 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  126. ^ ΞΨΘ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook of 1924. 1923 address: 1306 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. The 1925 Gopher shows several former ΞΨΦ men from the 1924 yearbook continuing as members of ΦΕΠ.
  127. ^ a b The ΑΣΦ national website notes that after its founding in October 1914, the Omar Club briefly changed its name to Alpha Theta Psi, prior to emerging as a chapter of Alpha Sigma Phi in 1916. There is no corroborating yearbook notation to show either predecessor group. The Dec 1916 Tomahawk of ΑΣΦ, retrieved February 18, 2020, notes that the Omar Club was so named because many of the founders "were fond of the works of Omar Khayyam". However, "they renamed themselves shortly" and petitioned twice – in 1915 then in 1916 – for admission into Alpha Sigma Phi; the second petition being granted with initiation coming in March of that year.
  128. ^ Address in 1915: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. While ΦΚΣ claims founding in 1915, this was the date of the predecessor group. ΦΚΣ makes first appearance, supplanting ΑΚΦ in the 1917 Gopher yearbook. A note in Baird's Archive says this group began in 1909; assuming the yearbook is correct in this case, and Baird's is in error.
  129. ^ a b c Several Minnesota ΛΧΑ predecessor groups are noted in an historical summary by Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity (November 2005), the Paedagogus, 50th edition. The Mandarin Club, along with two successor fraternities, the second of which was small national ΘΚΝ, didn't survive as an active group prior to the merger with ΛΧΑ. Eventually closing in 1933, ΘΚΝ missed the merger (Oct 11, 1939) with its neighboring fraternity by about six years.
  130. ^ ΧΔΞ's predecessor group was Svithiod, also listed here. That group adopted the new name in 1921. Actor Henry Fonda was a member. Address by 1925: 1110 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  131. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1923, p.421, with most names continuing as members of Triangle the following year.
  132. ^ Sanua notes in "Going Greek" that Minnesota's chapter of Phi Epsilon Pi came from a predecessor group, the Phi Club, but does not indicate a founding date, thus 1921 is conjectural.
  133. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1923, p.384, with many names continuing as members of ΠΚΑ the following year.
  134. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.469, shows Sphinx at 1116 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. It was this group that became the Gamma-Omega chapter of ΛΧΑ. A typo in the 1926 yearbook has them at 1161 5th Street SE, but this address did not exist. It was 1116.
  135. ^ All chapters of ΦΕΠ, including Minnesota's Alpha Delta chapter were absorbed into ΖΒΤ in 1970, though the Minnesota chapter did not survive. It first appears in the 1925 yearbook with the '23 founding year, but without noting a residence. Address by 1927: 311 Union Street, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 309 17th Avenue SE, (later this lot was rebuilt with a church behind ΒΘΠ, which was then razed for a housing development). Address in 1930: 1018 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it leased or bought from ΦΣΚ. Address in 1940: 1901 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (former TKE house – See Zellie, pA-39).
  136. ^ University Real Estate office report, shows purchase of at least one ΦΕΠ property, ID 25-029-024-11, in 1971. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  137. ^ This was the Minnesota Alpha chapter of ΘΚΝ, address from about 1929–33 was 1100 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  138. ^ Address in 1927: 322 18th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  139. ^ Not to be confused with the Native American fraternity formed in 2002 at the University of Arizona and now with two chapters.
  140. ^ a b ΠΛΦ's renamed Rho chapter is listed as dormant on the national website. Retrieved January 18, 2020. Installed XX, MONTH 1925 (same as Phi Beta Delta, predecessor). For its entire life, this chapter had been the Alpha Alpha chapter of ΦΒΔ, which merged into ΠΛΦ in 1941, a decade after Alpha Alpha's demise. Phi Beta Delta should also not be confused with the honors society of the same name.
  141. ^ Installed XX, Month 1925. Address in 1927: 1321 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 1308 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1931: 1309 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Not to be confused with the honor society of the same name.
  142. ^ Originally a Catholic fraternity, this was its Alpha Epsilon chapter. Installed Nov 23, 1947. Address by 1955: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.280, notes a pending merger that year ('59) with Theta Kappa Phi, another Catholic fraternity not represented on the Minnesota campus, to form Phi Kappa Theta. Hence, the Minnesota Alpha Epsilon chapter of ΦΚ became the Minnesota Alpha Epsilon chapter of ΦΚΘ, but only survived two more years.
  143. ^ ΦΔΘ's Minnesota Alpha chapter website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Installed October 12, 1881. This chapter suffered a schism, with members departing to form the Phi Epsilon chapter of ΔΚΕ prior to or during 1898. It ruptured the chapter enough so that Phi Delt had to revive the chapter in 1891. This occurred 20 years prior to establishment of the NIC, whose members agreed to cease the practice of "poaching" each other's chapters. Phi Delt's alumni page says they resided at 1018 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1903. Zellie study says chapter resided at 423 E. Beacon Street sometime prior to 1912. Address by 1912: 1027 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Note, the 1931 Yearbook and the chapter's alumni web page shows this property with an address of 1029 University Ave. SE, stating ΦΔΘ built (?) the property in 1930, but the 1925 yearbook photo shows the same house that is present today, at least from the University facing. Was this instead just a renovation of the back? Also, the building's postal address was shifted at some point to 1027 University SE, as it is listed today. See also Phi Delt alumni page. Retrieved July 1, 2014. Address in 1945: 1821 University Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, according to the 1945–46 Student organization directory. Address in 1946: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Another address in the 1940s: 422 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1950–91: 1011 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, an "International Modernist" cinderblock building, later razed for a property known as "The Cluster." Address in 1991–94: 400 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they renovated. Address in 2013: 319 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through 2021, when they closed due to low membership numbers.
  144. ^ ΔΥ's Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  145. ^ ΔΥ's Minnesota Chapter Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 21, 2014. Installed May 23, 1890. Address prior to 1908: 400 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1908: 314 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1913: 921 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (presently the south side of ΓΦΒ's building), which it eventually sold to them in 1967. A note in the 1955 yearbook says their home burned in 1939, after which they rebuilt on Tenth Ave., (the same footprint as the 921 University Ave building.) Address in 1965: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, now one of the Triangle buildings. Address at recolonization in 1991: 1725 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (this building is owned by Alpha Delta Phi, which had been off-campus for a half-decade.) Addresses in 2003: both 812 7th Street SE and 1019 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2012: 1027 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, (a structure originally built by ΦΔΘ). Ceased operations in early 2017, then was reinstated, according to a 2017 MN Daily article accessed November 21, 2018. Address in 2017: non-residential. No address listed as of November 21, 2018, and the chapter is no longer listed a member of IFC.
  146. ^ ΨΥ's national website, listing Minnesota's Mu chapter. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Installed May 22, 1891. Address in 1908–41: 1721 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, now the Student Co-op, which ΨΥ built. Bought 1617 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN from ΧΦ in 1941 (who'd themselves acquired it from ΣΦΕ after 1934), until ΨΥ closed in 1993. Note, during the height of WWII (1943–44) the chapter resided at 429 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  147. ^ ΘΔΧ's Tau Deuteron 'Charge' (~Chapter) Installed April 27, 1892, from the Addisonian Club. This installation date cited from the banquet program, held by ΘΔΧ HQ. An installation date, one week earlier, was cited in an early yearbook, but appears to be in error. Address in 1908: 100 Beacon Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1911: 1521 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (now Hillel house lot). Moved to 400 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1949, residing there until 1984.
  148. ^ According to the Theta Nu Epsilon website Archived March 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved December 6, 2014, but as of November 21, 2018, no longer accessible except for the archived version, the Minnesota chapter of this fraternity was the Alpha Epsilon Chapter which died in 1900. However, the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1895, p.163, notes rather the name Tau chapter of ΘΝΕ as having chartered at Minnesota in 1893. This incorrect name was a deliberate error. According to the ΘΝΕ website, the Tau designation was "fancied by the chapter," and Chi was also considered, before Alpha Epsilon was allowed. ΘΝΕ's Wikipedia page notes (without clear citation) possible activity at Minnesota as late as 1934, which the lack of a Gopher record shows is unlikely.
  149. ^ Baird's and other sources note ΘΝΕ was an ill-favored national due to its recruitment of sophomores who were already members of other fraternities, and a policy of secrecy about the active members – those same sophomores tapped each year. It was NOT an honorary, nor a service society. (Freshmen were not eligible, juniors and seniors were advisory only.) Hence, ΘΝΕ became a bit of a pariah, and members were pressured to quit lest they be expelled from their primary fraternities at Minnesota (see ΦΣΚ Rand History); in 1913 the NIC advocated vigorously against its collegians joining ΘΝΕ. Struggling for a workable path to legitimacy, several varying models developed on ΘΝΕ's campuses, where some chapters became standard fraternities, and other public inter-fraternity groups. At Alabama, it even became a political machine, while other chapters took yet other forms. Later, with the adoption of changes, ΘΝΕ briefly joined the NIC in the 1930s, but ceased operations after WWII. Several chapters reformed the society as a smaller entity, some becoming co-ed in the 1970s. The fraternity reports a few chapters that remain active today. --All information compiled from Baird's 19th, from the cited ΘΝΕ website, and a note about Theta Nu Epsilon in ΦΣΚ's Rand History, in a reference cited under that fraternity, p190.
  150. ^ The Acacia national website noted its Minnesota chapter (Hebrew: 'Kaph') actually was a club that pre-dated establishment of the national organization, later joining the growing fraternity as its eleventh chapter. Acacia attempted a recolonization, according to the national fraternity, an attempt that was abandoned in late 2017 without rechartering. Installed May 22, 1906. Address until 1915: 100 Beacon Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1915 was the Richardsonian Romanesque Frey mansion at 1206 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, residing there through 1968 (or as late as 1970?) (Zellie study says only 40 years) while 1967–68 Student Directory shows their continued residence in that building. A 1965 edition of Pearls of Wisdom, a publication by the Church Universal and Triumphant lists the building as its "Hiawatha House" and one of its nine Community Teaching Centers that year]. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Chapter address in 1979 directory (using old info?): 612 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (may have been non-residential this year.) Address in 1980 directory (also old info?): 1027 University Ave., Minneapolis, MN. The chapter lived elsewhere after their 1983 return. Historical sketch of 1206 5th Street SE, and architectural renderings Archived October 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 7, 2014
  151. ^ The building at 1206 5th Street SE, known as the Frey Mansion, was occupied and then owned by the Heart of the Earth survival school (associated with the American Indian Movement), from 1980 until 2013. In 2013 the building was purchased by a private developer, Roman Gadaskin, who renovated it along with the adjacent Hoy Building into multi-unit housing for a total of 23 bedrooms, according to City planning minutes. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  152. ^ The Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, notes Acacia as closing in 1971, but this is an error, and doesn't match Baird's, nor does it note the later recolonization, from 1983 to 1993. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  153. ^ ΦΚΣ's Alpha Sigma chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. The chapter's predecessor group dates to 1915, while ΦΚΣ makes its first Gopher appearance in 1917. Address in 1925: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 1813 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, built by the fraternity. During WWII, moved to the Delta Chi building at 1601 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, until closing in 1943. Address in 2013: 1099 Hyacinth Ave. E., St. Paul, MN. Address in 2015: 641 Huron Blvd. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2019: 1111 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through Summer, 2020.
  154. ^ Installed April 9–10, 1920. The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.473 shows the Psi chapter of ΘΞ at: 519 10th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1956 was: 330 11th Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Oddly, the home at 519 10th was again pictured with the chapter in the 1965 yearbook (likely photographed in 1964 due to publication timing), then the 1965–66 directory notes their address at 1011 6th Street SE., Minneapolis, MN.
  155. ^ Address in 1926: 1312 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address thru 1928: 960 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. This group vanished suddenly, with no successor organization. A few of the members joined other fraternities.
  156. ^ Not to be confused with the SE Asian-themed sorority formed in 2000 at Cal State Fullerton, now expanded to multiple chapters.
  157. ^ Installed 1925 (month, date?). The Gamma-Omega chapter of ΛΧΑ retained Sphinx' house after the 1925 chartering, at: 1116 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address at re-colonization in 1947 appears to have involved a 3-way trade, leading to the establishment of the non-Greek Students Co-op at 1721 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1956: 1009 University Ave., Minneapolis, MN. Their re-chartering date was March 9, 1948, according to the 1947–48 Student Directory.
  158. ^ Former address in 19xx: 1710 4th Street SE, (on the north side of 4th, across from 17th Street Dorm). Address in 1929: 320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.362, shows ΤΔΦ's Phi chapter at 701 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1940: 317 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (across the alley from ΒΘΠ, now razed for Keeler Apts.). Address in 1943: 1313 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Non-residential in 1946.
  159. ^ ΧΦ's national magazine, Winter 2005, pp 47–48, shows dates of activity for Minnesota's Gamma Delta chapter. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Installed April 29, 1928. Address at chartering in 1928: 1110 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (continuing in the home they had as ΧΔΞ). Address in 1936: 1617 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1941: 1313 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1943: 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1946: 315 19th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (the former ΑΡΧ architecture fraternity) until closing in 1990 or '94.
  160. ^ The Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, notes ΧΦ as closing in 1994, but this doesn't match other sources, which cite 1990.
  161. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.280, notes pending merger of Phi Kappa and Theta Kappa Phi, to form Phi Kappa Theta. The resulting chapter was the Minnesota Alpha Epsilon chapter of ΦΚΘ. Installed November 23, 1947. Lived in several rental properties. At the time of the merger, their address in 1959: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  162. ^ Came from several predecessor groups. ΖΒΤ's beginning came as a group called its Delta colony (a Greek-letter named colony indicator only for the purpose of colonization) in 1947. Two years later this group was installed as the fraternity's Beta Iota chapter, pre-dating any national merger. Installed November 20, 1949, ΖΒΤ rented several properties for about four years, but went dormant 17 years prior to that fraternity's national merger with ΦΕΠ. ΖΒΤ briefly considered recolonization in 2012, but this did not occur.
  163. ^ Address from 1965 to 1980+: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. This was ΒΣΨ's Kappa chapter.
  164. ^ ΩΝΑ's University of Minnesota web portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Address in 2000, 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, moving in 2006 to 1019 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. This local chapter was formed by former ΘΧ members at the time of Theta Chi's 2000 closure.
  165. ^ ΚΚΓ's Chi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  166. ^ ΚΚΓ's Chi Chapter website. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Installed April 21, 1880. Address in 1908: 1413 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1909: 1023 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1910: 1728 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 1728 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1915: 329 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built, through the present day. ΚΚΓ's annex, at 914 4th Street SE, was owned by ΑΟΠ from ~1915 to 1930, until that sorority completed their new home.
  167. ^ ΔΓ's Lambda chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed Oct 22, 1882. Obtained the first women's residential 'sorority' house on campus, rented and not built for them. This home, in 1903 was situated at 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (the location is the right-hand side of the former ΔΔΔ house, but ΔΓ's building may have been a previous structure on that same site). Other addresses: 1221 SE. 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN and by 1914: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1917 which they built: 1026 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, which has been expanded and which the chapter occupies through the present day.
  168. ^ ΚΑΘ's Upsilon chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  169. ^ ΚΑΘ's national website, showing Upsilon Chapter. Retrieved May 21, 2014. Installed Feb 6,, 1889. Address from 1914 to 1951: 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (the right side of the former ΔΔΔ house). Address in 1951: 1012 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  170. ^ ΑΦ's Epsilon chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed Sep 15, 1890. The first 'sorority' to build a chapterhouse, in 1912 ΑΦ built the property at 323 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside through the present day. It has been remodeled and expanded several times, notably in 1923, 1938, 1948 (façade) and 1969 (front room). The letter "Phi" in the sorority's name is pronounced in Greek fashion, as "Fee", and not anglicized as "Fye".
  171. ^ ΠΒΦ's Minnesota Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  172. ^ ΠΒΦ's Minnesota Alpha chapter website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. The 7th ed. of Baird's notes a short dormancy until the chapter was re-established in 1905 with the absorption of a local sorority, likely formed for that purpose. Installed 1890. Re-installed September 8, 1906. Address by 1914: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (Zellie). Address in 1915: 1212 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1916 to 1928: 1019 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, which ΠΒΦ built as the fifth sorority house on campus (Zellie, p. A-48). Address in 1928: 1109 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it also built, through the present day. Zellie notes (p.A-78-79) that there was a previous wood framed, unnamed sorority house on this lot, dated from 1895. Pi Phi maintains an annex at 510 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  173. ^ ΓΦΒ's Kappa chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  174. ^ ΓΦΒ's Kappa Chapter website. Retrieved May 21, 2014. Installed May 23, 1902. Address until 1914: 1018 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address prior to 1915: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1915: 311 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day, making it the second chapter to construct a chapterhouse. In 1967, ΓΦΒ bought and connected the neighboring building, formerly 921 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, from Delta Upsilon fraternity, later expanding the connection between the buildings from a pass-way to a three-story expansion.
  175. ^ ΑΓΔ's Delta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  176. ^ ΑΓΔ's Delta chapter website. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Installed Feb 14, 1908. Address in 1910: 611 13th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 309 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1915: 1023 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1916–64: 311 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built (later, this was home to ΣΑΜ in the late 1960s and 1970s). Address by 1965: 401 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built, through the present day. One reference (1965–66 Student Directory) noted this an address at 1029 4th Street SE., Minneapolis, MN, but this is merely the 4th Street side of the same property, probably the address of a former building on that site.
  177. ^ ΑΟΠ's Tau chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  178. ^ ΑΟΠ's Tau chapter website. Retrieved May 19, 2014. First address was: 1013 University Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (a single room in 1912). Address in 1915: 1213 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from potentially as early as 1916 until 1930: 914 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (now Kappa's annex). Address in 1930: 1121 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built, through the present day.
  179. ^ a b Noted in the sorority's national magazine To Dragma, Spring 2013 issue, p.40. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
  180. ^ ΑΧΩ's Alpha Lambda chapter portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  181. ^ ΑΧΩ's Alpha Lambda chapter website. Retrieved May 19, 2014. Address by 1924: 1018 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1930: 514 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1965 (had bought site in 1962 from ΣΑΜ, then leased back to ΣΑΜ for three years), finally building and occupying their new house in 1966: 915 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  182. ^ ΧΩ's Pi Beta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved January 29, 2019. Address by 1926: 1707 University Ave. SE. Address from 1927 to 1989: 315 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (now the Maranatha Church, and formerly owned by ΖΨ). Address in 2013: 326 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through Spring semester, 2020. Address for Fall Semester 2020 is 1821 University Ave., SE, Minneapolis, MN, a property owned by Alpha Tau Omega alumni. Note, Zellie study says ΧΩ built 1001 5th Street SE in 1967. This is an obvious error in that study. Cause?
  183. ^ ΦΜ's Zeta Eta chapter website. Retrieved November 10, 2017. Baird's Archive notes that the sorority first established an interest group or colony in 1923, which after installation was called Zeta Eta chapter. Re-chartered in 2017. Address by 1926: 416 8th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1928 and through at least 1932: 1121 University Ave. SE. Address in 1933?, certainly through 1960: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΔΖ house, now one of the Triangle houses). Address in 1965: 330 11th Ave. SE., Minneapolis, MN. Note that another Minnesota sorority, ΑΔΘ, merged into ΦΜ nationally in 1939. In the early 1930s ΑΔΘ had resided at nearby 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, (itself a former ΠΒΦ house). However, both small chapters closed prior to the ΦΜ merger. Alumnae clubs from the predecessor organizations merged their membership. After their post-WWII recolonization (1946) they secured a new building, with a change of residence again in 1964, but school yearbooks do not provide either address. Address in fall 2016: 326 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day. OFSL reports that a lack of suitable housing prompted that ΦΜ's recolonization, originally planned for the fall of 2015, had to be pushed back to occur in fall 2016.
  184. ^ Beta chapter of Clovia is an independent sorority on the St. Paul campus, unaffiliated with the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life.
  185. ^ Clovia's website. Retrieved September 6, 2021. The group's original name was ΣΦΗ, but quickly adopted Clovia Club with the intent of joining the national group. Address in 1959: 1502 Raymond Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address in 1989: 2067 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN, with the purchase that year of ΓΟΒ's house.
  186. ^ Clovia remains a regional organization, with an active Alpha Chapter at Kansas State. There have been four other chapters: at Nebraska, Mankato (MN), Ft. Hayes State (KS) and Crookston (MN) for a total of six, but the rest have since closed. The Alpha chapter, formerly a part of the campus Panhellenic, has re-branded itself as an independent cooperative house, promoting leadership, according to that chapter's website. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
  187. ^ ΛΔΦ's Gamma chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  188. ^ ΛΔΦ's Gamma Chapter website. Retrieved May 20, 2014. Address in 1965: 1276 No. Raymond Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address in 1979: 1381 N. Cleveland Ave., St. Paul, MN, where they reside today. This is the only remaining active chapter of the sorority.
  189. ^ ΑΣΚ's Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  190. ^ ΑΣΚ's Alpha chapter website. Retrieved November 10, 2017. Address in 1994: 1011 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Non-residential. Address in 2012: 126 Coffman Memorial Union, 300 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN
  191. ^ ΣΑΕΠ's Beta chapter local website. Retrieved August 8, 2019, and U of MN portal. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  192. ^ This national group had a presence on the campus in 2003 according to the referenced Minnesota Daily article, but ceased operations shortly thereafter. In 2017 a newly-formed local group, Kappa Lambda Epsilon chose to align with the national sorority thus restoring them to campus. Chapters of this national primarily participate within the Panhellenic Council on each campus, although a minority of chapters have opted to join their local Multicultural Council instead.
  193. ^ a b New Jewish Sorority joining Greek Life Spring Semester, noted in a Minnesota Daily article December 14, 2017, and accessed August 8, 2019.
  194. ^ As noted on Gamma Phi's national website history section, under Kappa chapter. Retrieved September 23, 2020. The 1965 history of the sorority notes the Khalailu Club was formed by six women on September 30, 1901, with the intention of petitioning a national sorority.
  195. ^ a b According to a note in Baird's Manual, 8th ed.
  196. ^ Pi Beta Phi was re-established in 1905 by absorption of this local sorority, per a note in Baird's 7th ed. This was likely an early colonization, a planned effort with the aim of re-establishing Pi Beta Phi.
  197. ^ Compare the 1919 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, p.187, where, by the following year's book, 1920, virtually all members continued as members of ΚΔ. (ΚΔ was founded on campus in 1918. The reason for the discrepancy is that, at this time, printing of the yearbook occurred at least a year prior to the named 'year' of the book.
  198. ^ The Minnesota Alumni Weekly of November 10, 1913, p.15 notes Alpha Omicron Pi to be the successor organization to local sorority Pi Theta Pi, reference accessed May 7, 2020.
  199. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, lists the Scroll and Key as having been founded in 1916. The 1937 Gopher notes ΣΔΤ's birth as Scroll and Key.
  200. ^ a b c Achoth sorority at Minnesota became Kappa Chapter of ΦΩΠ (Phi Omega Pi) in a national name change in 1922, followed by a national consolidation with several other small sororities. Phi Omega Pi national in turn was partly absorbed by Delta Zeta national in 1946, but this occurred about four years after the local ΦΩΠ chapter at Minnesota had died. Note that the Zellie reference says ΔΖ built 1100 4th Street SE in 1927. This conflicts slightly with Gopher photos and addresses, probably due to trailing publication timing.
  201. ^ Address in 1920: 410 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Zellie reference p.A-63 says Achoth resided at 1107 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN until 1930, but other records (Baird's) notes that the sorority had changed its name, nationally, to ΦΩΠ in 1922. None of the yearbooks provide this chapter's designation, which may have been the Yodh chapter or Teth chapter, prior to the name change to Phi Omega Pi (when it was re-designated as the Kappa chapter of its new sorority). Also, there is an error in the 1923 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, showing a chapter founding year of 1907. This should be 1917. The national sorority begun on Mar 15, 1910, at Nebraska.
  202. ^ Note, from 1917 to 1922 this Eastern Star-supported sorority was called Achoth. Address by 1926 through about 1942 (four years before the ΔΖ merger): 800 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN
  203. ^ See the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.533
  204. ^ a b c There were two Alpha Rho organizations. The first was the Alpha Rho Society, a short-lived local medical professional fraternity dating to 1897 or earlier, which that year petitioned to become a chapter of Alpha Kappa Kappa, a national medical fraternity. The second group was Alpha Rho, a local academic sorority formed in 1920 that became a chapter of Zeta Tau Alpha.
  205. ^ ΣΚ's Alpha Eta chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Address by 1925: 901 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (later razed for 35W). Built 521 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1936, occupying it through 1961 and then in 1962 as a new local chapter (Preliminary designs had the floorplan reversed on the left-right bias, with an address at 519 12th Avenue SE and changed prior to construction. This home is now one of the Triangle Houses). The 1963 Yearbook notes ΒΤΛ moved to another location at the end of 1962.
  206. ^ a b According to the 1961 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, ΒΤΛ was formed by members of ΣΚ's Alpha Eta chapter who chose to turn in their charter over dissatisfaction with how the national sorority had handled two eastern chapters who'd pledged black students, chapters that had been suspended. Thus it would appear that the Minnesota group had been supportive of a more inclusive national policy. Address in 1961: 521 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they abandoned after 1962.
  207. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, lists the Alpha chapter of ΖΑ on p.517. Address in 1926: 312 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  208. ^ This was the Kappa chapter of ΒΦΑ, which went dormant just prior to the national merger with ΔΖ in 1941; ΒΦΑ had nine of fifteen members graduate in 1939, leaving five juniors, no sophomores and one freshman to sustain the group. Address in 1927: 312 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (they previously resided here as local, ΖΑ). Address in 1928: 1707 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (later the site of the Newman Center, which itself was razed for the Greek Suites of the 17th Avenue dorm in ~2012). Address in 1929: 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1931–33: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  209. ^ Address in 1928–30+: 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (which had previously housed ΠΒΦ and then ΑΤΩ.)
  210. ^ Four years after local ΦΔΣ became ΑΔΘ's Tau chapter at Minnesota, the group died. Then five years later its national was absorbed into ΦΜ. ΑΔΘ address from 1931 to 1934: 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN
  211. ^ This academic and social sorority, ΑΔΘ, should not to be confused with the national professional sorority of the same name, chartered on the Minnesota campus some years later.
  212. ^ Listed in the 1938 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, ΓΣΦ showed they had just moved into 416 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, a home previously occupied by ΣΔΤ. ΓΣΦ's address by 1938 and chartering as ΑΕΦ was 928 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  213. ^ Listed in the 1960 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, ΝΣΠ on the St. Paul campus was noted as a preliminary step before becoming a chapter of the then-undetermined national sorority.
  214. ^ Why the U Needs A Jewish Sorority, article on TCJewFolk.com website. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  215. ^ Address in 2016: 1521 University Ave. SE., Minneapolis, MN, at the Hillel building.
  216. ^ "Tri Delta website". tridelta.org. Retrieved January 14, 2018.. ΔΔΔ's Theta chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on the national website. Colony formed 1892. Installed Feb 21, 1894. Address by 1914: 1703 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1917: 316 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, buying and linking adjacent 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (sometime after 1961) which they remodeled and expanded twice. They closed in 2004. Prodded by their national organization alumnae sold their property with proceeds turned over to headquarters rather than renting it out during the downturn or maintaining a local fund. As of 2019 a church built a sanctuary on their former parking lot.
  217. ^ ΑΞΔ's Mu chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on the national website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Installed May 24, 1907. Address in 1910: 1405 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 1800 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1920: 410 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1924: 1115 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (Wales House B&B), which the sorority converted from a private home, until 1960. Address in 1985: 637 Erie St., Minneapolis, MN.
  218. ^ GCSTF12 notes ΑΞΔ as closing in 1960, but other records note a re-colonization from 1983 to 1987. Then, Zellie notes, almost certainly incorrectly, that ΑΞΔ was in this last building until the late 1960s. Which is correct? The letter "Xi" in the sorority's name is pronounced in Greek fashion, as "Zee", and not anglicized as "Zye".
  219. ^ ΚΔ's Sigma Beta chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Address prior to 1925: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1926: 1025 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through 1972 when they closed.
  220. ^ ΑΔΠ's Alpha Rho chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website. Retrieved May 26, 2020. Address by 1926: 629 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1927: 1009 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1952 to 1987: 1000 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (later the "Moonies" house, and in 2017 purchased by Kappa Sigma.)
  221. ^ This was the Gamma chapter of Delta Zeta, formed in 1923. The Baird's Archive notes formation of a local predecessor in 1922 called Gamma, which may have simply been the chapter as it was being organized. Several other locals or small nationals eventually merged with Delta Zeta, some absorbed as active chapters, others in the addition of alumnae of a dormant group.
  222. ^ ΔΖ's Gamma chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Address in 1924: 1111 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 1212 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928, which ΔΖ built: 1100 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (to clarify, this is the same building as 330 11th Avenue SE, now occupied by ΚΗΚ professional fraternity. Its address was adjusted to reflect its front entrance on 11th Avenue SE.) (Zellie p.A-60). Address in 1943: 519 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  223. ^ ΖΤΑ's Alpha Tau chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Address in 1926: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1927: 916 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1929: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΔΖ house, now one of the Triangle houses) – incidentally the 1941 yearbook reported there was a fire at this house just prior to publication. Address by 1943: 1125 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, temporarily occupying Kappa Sigma's building. Address by 1945: 1027 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (former Phi Delta Theta house), now the site of The Cluster, student housing.
  224. ^ The University of Minnesota lists the ΓΟΒ Foundation as a continuing source for scholarship money. Retrieved June 28, 2014. Originally a Home Economics club, ΓΟΒ was recognized as a Home Economics Sorority in 1932, apparently a local. Address by 1940: 1420 Chelmsford Avenue, St. Paul, MN. Address in late 1941 (1942 yearbook): 1394 Grantham Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address in 1942: 1315 Raymond Avenue, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1943: 2060 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address in 1945: 2089 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address by 1946: 2067 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN. At ΓΟΒ's closure in 1989, Beta chapter of Clovia purchased the 2067 Carter Ave. building, and retains it today.
  225. ^ ΔΦΕ's Tau chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website. Retrieved November 21, 2018
  226. ^ ΣΔΤ's Nu chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Address by 1932: 416 11th Avenue SE. Address by 1938: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1939: 1121 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through their closure in 1994.
  227. ^ ΑΕΦ's Alpha Iota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  228. ^ ΑΕΦ's Alpha Iota chapter website Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 19, 2014. Address in 1938 until at least 1975: 928 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Later address: 311 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, selling to ΣΑΜ. Address circa 1940: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (this is a conflicting date reference in Zellie, p.A-112, as the yearbook clearly says 928 5th in 1940 and 1942). Address in 1978: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, then the chapter closed. Address at 2009 recolonization: 126 Coffman Memorial Union, 300 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN
  229. ^ ΦΒΧ's Psi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 10, 2017. Non-residential. Address in 2013: 126 Coffman Memorial Union, 300 Washington Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Closed in 2019 due to low membership numbers.
  230. ^ ΑΦΑ's Mu chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 24, 2014
  231. ^ ΩΨΦ's Xi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014, photographed in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, p.465, with an address at 906 Gaultier Street, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1965: 906 Gaultier Street, St. Paul, MN.
  232. ^ ΚΑΨ's national website. Retrieved May 21, 2014
  233. ^ ΚΑΨ's Psi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Noted in the 1965–66 Student Directory. While the Twin Cities alumni chapter remains active, as of 2021 there are no active undergrads of this fraternity.
  234. ^ ΦΒΣ's Pi Eta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014. While the Twin Cities alumni chapter remains active, as of 2021 there are no active undergrads of this fraternity.
  235. ^ ΣΛΒ's Alpha Beta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  236. ^ ΠΔΨ's Alpha Delta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  237. ^ As noted in a press release of 25 Oct 2020. Retrieved November 10, 2020. This is an "Associate" chapter, not yet installed with a chapter name.
  238. ^ ΔΛΦ's Delta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  239. ^ ΔΛΦ's Delta chapter website. Retrieved May 21, 2014. For several years beginning in 1990, ΔΛΦ resided at 315 19th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, (after ΧΦ closed and before ΚΣ leased the building). ΔΛΦ closed in 2019 due to low membership numbers.
  240. ^ Note, ΣΒΡ's national website had listed the Minnesota group as a colony, when accessed March 19, 2015. However, as of September 10, 2016, it was no longer listed. It never chartered.
  241. ^ ΑΚΑ's Mu Rho chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  242. ^ Non residential in 1945. Address in 1959: 988 Iglehart Ave., St. Paul, MN.
  243. ^ ΔΣΘ's Nu Epsilon chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  244. ^ Nu Epsilon chapter is a "city-wide" chapter that encompasses members from the University of Minnesota, Hamline University and Augsburg University.
  245. ^ ΖΦΒ's Kappa Pi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  246. ^ For ΣΓΡ's Delta Nu chapter, refer to the national website. Retrieved May 22, 2014
  247. ^ ΣΛΓ's Sigma Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  248. ^ ΔΦΩ's Twin Cities colony University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  249. ^ ΑΦΓ's Mu chapter, University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016
  250. ^ a b There have been two groups called Alpha Phi Gamma on the Minnesota campus. The earliest, founded in 1919, was an honorary society for Journalists. It merged with Pi Delta Epsilon in 1975 to form the Society for Collegiate Journalists. The latter-formed ΑΦΓ is a member of the NAPA conference, an Asian interest sorority.
  251. ^ ΣΨΖ's Alpha Kappa chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  252. ^ ΣΨΖ's Alpha Kappa chapter Facebook page. Retrieved 5 May 2015
  253. ^ Noted on Minnesota's BeGreekUMN website. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  254. ^ This crossover is apparent in many examples: Alpha Gamma Rho fraternity became an NIC member while retaining its membership in the PHA. Born as a professional fraternity, by 1917 it had begun to operate as a social and academic fraternity, requiring 'exclusivity' of its members, i.e.: they couldn't be part of another social or academic society. In 1944 FarmHouse fraternity made a similar move. Like AGR, both retain a focus on agriculture. Delta Chi fraternity began as a Law fraternity, conferencing with similar societies it its early days, while by 1911 moving exclusively into what would become the NIC camp. Minnesota's was the fourth oldest chapter of this national and was a participant in this evolution. A number of multicultural fraternities such as Alpha Phi Alpha are members of both the NPHC as well as the NIC. Evans Scholars, an honorary fraternity for golf caddies whose Eta chapter (accessed December 3, 2017) occupies a home among the undergraduate Greeks, operates as a social and academic residential chapter and maintains a full social schedule among the NIC and NPC fraternities and sororities. City codes group all such property-owning organizations together, regulating them as similar to boarding houses. The sale or rental of properties between groups has occurred cooperatively for well over a century. To summarize, rather than exhibiting hard-and-fast lines of demarcation that separate social, professional or honor types of organizations, these societies appear to flex, cooperate and adjust over time with the demands of participants, becoming more or less vigorous (residential, social, 'programmed') in a slow but steady evolution.
  255. ^ The ACHS website lists the colors. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  256. ^ Note, until 2012, ΦΔΦ had nationally been a professional fraternity. Chapters are called "Inns"; the Minnesota chapter is called the Dillon Inn, as shown in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.501. Sometimes residential, address shown in 1914: 321 14th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1959: 721 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  257. ^ This is ΦΒΚ's Minnesota Alpha chapter
  258. ^ Mortar Board's University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  259. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Association of College Honor Societies website: search for current status of this society at the University of Minnesota. Retrieved May 18, 2014
  260. ^ Note, there was a women's senior honorary at Minnesota dating from 1903 also called Mortar Board. Merged? National affiliation came in 1919, but the Minnesota group is not listed among the national founders. See Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.508
  261. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.507. Decades later, the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook of 1959 mentions the "twilight tapping ceremony on the steps of Northrop," and the role of the Iron Wedge in ushering at the President's Reception each year, p.347
  262. ^ ΦΥΟ's Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 25, 2014. Formerly residential, address in 1914: 1455 Cleveland Avenue, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1915: 1315 Raymond Avenue, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1959: 1387 Cleveland Ave., St. Paul, MN. The 1979–80 Student Org directory lists a "Phi Upsilon" honors fraternity, but this listing is adjacent to "Phi Upsilon Omicron" with the same adviser or president's name and same address and phone number. Hence "Phi Upsilon" in this directory is clearly a duplicate entry and may be ignored. One yearbook reference, in 1928, says the chapter was founded in 1911.
  263. ^ ΤΒΦ's Minnesota Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016
  264. ^ This is ΦΛΥ's Minnesota Zeta chapter
  265. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1930, p.362, lists the Minnesota chapter of ΓΣΔ. The chapter had begun as a local, quickly amalgamating with similar groups from early agricultural schools at a meeting held in Minnesota. See also Honors Society of Agriculture
  266. ^ Minnesota chapter contact information, from ΓΣΔ national website. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  267. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.312 notes the Beta chapter of ΤΣΔ. The chapter is listed as inactive in a May 2020 search of the ACHS website, but this may mean only a lack of an annual report. It was most recently 'reestablished' in 2012, and maintains a University website.
  268. ^ ΤΣΔ's Beta chapter website. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  269. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.524 lists the Minnesota Epsilon chapter of ΠΛΘ
  270. ^ This is/was the Gamma chapter of ΔΦΔ. Still existent in 1949. Now dormant?
  271. ^ a b c There are two organizations on the Minnesota campus named Delta Phi Delta. One is an art honorary, and the other was a professional law fraternity.
  272. ^ ΗΚΝ's Omicron chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  273. ^ ΞΣΠ Delta Chapter University of Minnesota portal Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 20, 2014. Scattered clippings indicate this group may be called XSP on some campuses. The 1975 student directory lists Xi Sigma Pi's Delta chapter as a residential chapter, with an address at 110 Green Hall, U of MN, on the St. Paul Campus. Obviously this is an academic building.
  274. ^ Minnesota's is the Beta chapter of ΒΓΣ, as noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.511. However, the 1929 yearbook calls it the Alpha of Minnesota chapter. The national organization was formed at Wisconsin, in 1913.
  275. ^ ΠΤΣ's national website. Retrieved November 21, 2018, shows the Minnesota Gamma chapter
  276. ^ Block and Bridle Club University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Evolved from the Livestock Club, per the Minnesota Gopher yearbok, 1924, p.192.
  277. ^ Sigma Gamma Epsilon website notes ΣΓΕ's Nu chapter. Had appeared inactive on ΣΓΕ website in 2014, but was subsequently restored. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  278. ^ ΧΕ's Minnesota Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016. "Date approved" as a new student group March 7, 1923, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  279. ^ Minnesota's is the Mercury chapter of ΙΣΠ, as noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.517. The national organization was formed at California, in 1912. The Minnesota chapter was approved as a new student group April 12, 1923, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  280. ^ ΙΣΠ's national body administers scholarships available at Minnesota. Accessed November 21, 2018
  281. ^ Minnesota's Beta Morae chapter of Phalanx was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.476, and noted with chapter name in the 1941 Yearbook, p.325, with a 1930 date of founding. This may have been the date of association into the national organization, founded at Illinois.
  282. ^ Plumb Bob website. Retrieved April 13, 2019
  283. ^ ΕΣΠ's national website. Retrieved November 21, 2018, shows the Pi chapter at Minnesota organized on Dec 15, 1927.
  284. ^ ΟΚΥ's national website notes Minnesota's Beta Beta chapter. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  285. ^ ΡΧ's Mu Chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016
  286. ^ National ΡΧ chapter listing. Retrieved November 21, 2018
  287. ^ This was the Epsilon chapter of ΣΕΣ; national appears to have disbanded.
  288. ^ This is the Gamma chapter of this organization, as noted in the 1942 Minnesota Gopher yearbook. Noted in the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  289. ^ ΒΑΨ / SAFA website. Retrieved June 8, 2014. Rho chapter at Minnesota was approved as a new student group May 12, 1931, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  290. ^ ΣΘΤ's Zeta chapter website. Retrieved November 21, 2018
  291. ^ ΩΧΕ's national website, showing the Minnesota Gamma chapter. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  292. ^ ΨΧ's Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  293. ^ ΨΧ's Minnesota chapter listed on the Psychology department website. Retrieved September 11, 2016
  294. ^ ΦΑΘ's national website shows the Phi chapter at Minnesota, and provides contact information. There is no local portal website.
  295. ^ ΚΤΑ's national website shows the Minnesota chapter of the society, and directs inquiries to the School of Journalism and Mass Communications. Retrieved June 8, 2014
  296. ^ ΠΔΦ's Alpha Xi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  297. ^ ΠΔΦ's national website shows the Alpha Xi chapter at Minnesota as active. Retrieved June 8, 2014
  298. ^ a b c National Interfraternity Music Council
  299. ^ ΤΒΣ's Alpha Iota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016. Predecessor group was ΘΝ local sorority. Historical sketch of ΤΒΣ and ΚΚΨ. Retrieved June 5, 2014
  300. ^ ΦΖ may not have a national website. Many chapters (Purdue's, for example, here), show the Minnesota Kappa chapter of the society. Retrieved June 8, 2014. May require a faculty sponsor.
  301. ^ ΣΓΤ's national website notes that the most recent update from local Minnesota chapter sponsors came in in 1996. May need faculty sponsorship to revitalize. Retrieved June 8, 2014
  302. ^ Founded as Angel Wings, to serve as the auxiliary to the Arnold Air Society, the group took the name Silver Wings after 1998, when campus units were given the option of using either name. Its restated purpose is "as a civilian organization that emphasizes leadership, citizenship, and development of professional skills," according to the Silver Wings website. Retrieved October 14, 2016. Minnesota's is the Nighthawk chapter.
  303. ^ ΑΚΔ's national website lists the Minnesota chapter as dormant as of 2004. This means the sponsor retired, and it needs a new academic sponsor.
  304. ^ ΠΚΛ's national website notes Minnesota's Alpha Sigma chapter went inactive in 2001; this likely means the faculty sponsor retired, and is easily remedied with a new sponsor.
  305. ^ ΣΦΑ website, listing Minnesota's Eta chapter. Retrieved November 21, 2018
  306. ^ Evans Scholars Eta chapter website portal. Retrieved June 5, 2014. Address by 1961: 1115 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. (purchased from ΑΞΔ). They sold this building in 1978 to ΣΦΕ. Today the chapter is located at 929 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  307. ^ ΠΑΞ's Lambda chapter at the University of Minnesota. Retrieved September 23, 2016, is noted on their national website. Also in the 1980 student organization directory.
  308. ^ "Recent chartering, (early 1968), noted in the Minnesota Nurseryman's Newsletter, July–August 1968. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  309. ^ ΡΛ's Mu chapter is listed on the national organization's website. Retrieved November 21, 2018
  310. ^ Phi Kappa Phi website. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  311. ^ Order of Omega's University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  312. ^ The Order of Omega's chapter directory Archived November 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 22, 2014
  313. ^ ΣΛΑ's Minnesota chapter, University portal. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  314. ^ ΦΤΣ's Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  315. ^ Golden Key's University of Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014
  316. ^ ΔΩ's Pi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  317. ^ ΑΕΔ's Minnesota Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  318. ^ Local ΑΕΔ website. Retrieved May 27, 2014
  319. ^ ΦΛΣ's University of Minnesota Alpha Phi chapter portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  320. ^ ΚΚΨ's Kappa Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  321. ^ ΚΚΨ's Kappa Alpha Chapter website. Retrieved May 21, 2014. Historical sketch of ΤΒΣ and ΚΚΨ. Retrieved June 5, 2014
  322. ^ This is the Zeta Sigma chapter of the fraternity.
  323. ^ Collegiate Scholars University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014
  324. ^ ΠΑΑ's national website. Retrieved June 1, 2016. There is no local chapter portal as this honor is conferred at graduation for those qualifying.
  325. ^ ΤΣ's Epsilon Tau chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  326. ^ ΤΣ's Epsilon Tau chapter, national portal. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  327. ^ ΣΑΛ's Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014
  328. ^ ΣΛΧ's Chi chapter at the University of Minnesota, as noted on the Construction Management program website. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  329. ^ See the Sigma Lambda Chi website. Retrieved March 26, 2018, which noted the chapter's induction date of November 1, 2018.
  330. ^ Phi Beta Delta's chapter list. Retrieved September 19, 2018, notes Minnesota's Psi chapter as active. Not to be confused with the Jewish social fraternity of the same name, which merged into Pi Lambda Phi in 1941.
  331. ^ Baird's explains that the Honors Society of Agriculture at Minnesota amalgamated with Gamma Sigma Delta in 1917.
  332. ^ Abstract note from UMN library collection notes founding date, in a record accessed August 21, 2019.
  333. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.440, shows Nu chapter. The 1926, 1927 and 1940 yearbooks note that the chapter was formed in 1917. Other sources suggest a 1911 founding, but this appears to be a typo, as U of MN Library records note that the predecessor group (for the AWC) formed in 1916–'17.
  334. ^ a b The Association for Women in Communications is the successor organization to this honors sorority which changed its name in 1972. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  335. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.361, shows ΓΕΠ's Eta chapter. This national honors society merged into Beta Gamma Sigma in 1933, although due to publishing timing it was shown in the 1934 yearbook.
  336. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1925, p.533, shows ΦΣΦ. This organization slowly morphed into Archived August 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine the Band Social Organization (BSO) through the early 1970s. Renewed organizational and Greek letter interest resulted in the twin chapters of ΤΒΣ (1952–75, revived in 1990) and ΚΚΨ (1994). Retrieved June 5, 2014
  337. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.516, shows ΠΔΕ. The fraternity merged with Alpha Phi Gamma in 1975, to form the Society for Collegiate Journalists, which may need a faculty sponsor to revive.
  338. ^ a b Note, nationally, ΚΟΝ was formed from a consolidation of ΟΝ and ΚΟΦ in 1990. Minnesota's ΟΝ Rho chapter was founded in 1923 and existed to 1980 or later, hence ΚΟΝ is listed here, using ΟΝ's dates of confirmed activity. The website for the successor group, ΚΟΝ, lists this chapter as dormant. Needs faculty sponsor to reactivate.
  339. ^ This was the Rho chapter of Omicron Nu.
  340. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1949, p.343. Historical sketch of ΤΒΣ. Retrieved June 5, 2014
  341. ^ a b History of Sigma Gamma Tau notes the Epsilon chapter of ΤΩ, at the merger with ΓΑΡ (Gamma Alpha Rho) to form Sigma Gamma Tau. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  342. ^ Angels Flight is noted in the 1961 Minnesota Gopher yearbook with founding dates. The group name changed to Silver Wings after 1998.
  343. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1890, p.101-3, with a crest that has the year 1869, suggesting a small national. A yearbook note says the group dates to 1889 on the Minnesota campus. A history of Lyon College of Arkansas has a society with the same name, from this timeframe; may be coincidental.
  344. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1893, p.158
  345. ^ ΚΒΦ's Minnesota chapter was lost in the Great Depression; only a Wall Street chapter remains. An irreverent group, the letters are the same as ΦΒΚ, spelled backwards; the fraternity's key also mimics ΦΒΚ, with reversed letters.
  346. ^ Noted in the 1894 Minnesota Gopher yearbook.
  347. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.326 shows "B" Company, 1st Regiment (~chapter)
  348. ^ Occasionally noted in AFA newsletters Archived August 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, "DSR-TKA" appears to have a presence on some campuses, no longer at Minnesota, with very little national activity. Website accessed May 16, 2014. In a Jan 2017 letter from Ball State University Director and NFA board member, Mary Moore, she notes an attempt was made "a few years ago" to re-establish the Minnesota chapter, but that this was not successful. She provided a web address for them for possible future contact. This was an historically important chapter: ΔΣΡ's Alpha chapter was at Minnesota. The ΔΣΡ chapter at Minnesota was re-started in 1947 after a short WWII dormancy. The National Forensics Assn may also cooperate from time to time with this collegiate organization.
  349. ^ a b Baird's 19th ed. on p.VIII-42 notes ΦΔΓ's 1935 absorption into Tau Kappa Alpha honor society.
  350. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.441
  351. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1915, p.468
  352. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1925, p.506. Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959 mentions 4 am awakening for those tapped, for breakfast, p.346
  353. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.440, shows Nu chapter of Theta Sigma Phi, the predecessor group.
  354. ^ This was the Epsilon chapter of the fraternity, which lasted only a few years. The national, originally a Professional fraternity dissolved in 1937, was re-established on a broader Forensics Honors basis in 1967. At that time it appears new chapter designations were assigned, and Minnesota's Epsilon designation was given to Stanford. The Minnesota chapter is therefore not listed in the 20th ed. of Baird's.
  355. ^ The Minnesota chapter was the Beta chapter
  356. ^ Noted with already a dozen honorees in the 1924 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, p.381, it is safe to assume establishment shortly after 1912. Membership was open to any who passed a strict set of athletic achievements. The Minnesota Alumni Weekly of November 10, 1913, notes there were seven chapters who combined to form the national fraternity in 1912, reference accessed May 7, 2020. Sigma Delta Psi is now dormant as a national, but remains a locally managed honorary at a number of schools, including The Citadel, as explained on their athletic department website. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  357. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1921, p.430, shows Wing and Bow. It again is shown in the 1932 edition.
  358. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p321 shows ΚΡ. Many references in U of Minnesota archives note award of a "Kappa Rho Cup".
  359. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.554, shows Skin and Bones. This may have begun as a class society. During some years, junior-class members would be photographed with their backs to the camera.
  360. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.527, shows White Dragon, an inter-fraternity recognition society for juniors and seniors chosen from among five of the oldest fraternities on campus. Later opened to other chapters.
  361. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1919, p.206 shows the Gamma chapter of ΖΚΨ.
  362. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.359, shows ΔΦΛ.
  363. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1925, p.516, shows Incus
  364. ^ Silver Spur's Minnesota Chapter became dormant prior to dormancy of national organization in 2006.
  365. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.383, shows ΤΥΚ. Appears to have been purely social, organizing multiple parties annually. Informally known as "Tux".
  366. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.377, shows Mortar and Ball's Alpha chapter, Battery "A", 1st Regiment. The chapter was re-started in 1947 after a WWII hiatus.
  367. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.518, shows ΩΗΜ, notably with both men and women as members, an early co-ed fraternity.
  368. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.522, shows ΠΑ
  369. ^ The National Collegiate Players has been disbanded nationally. The 1925 Minnesota Gopher yearbook explains on p.262 that ΠΕΔ organized in 1922, and affiliated with the National Collegiate Players just one year later, in 1923.
  370. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.510, shows ΑΠΑ
  371. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.435. "Date approved" as a new student group February 15, 1922, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  372. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.537, shows Torch and Distaff
  373. ^ Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1923, p.365
  374. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.356, shows the Dean E. E. Nicholson chapter of ΑΔΣ
  375. ^ Minnesota's chapter of ΠΤΠΣ was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.477. Also referenced in the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  376. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.357. 1949 Gopher notes its paired relationship with similar sorority for women, Eta Sigma Upsilon (ΗΣΥ). "Date approved" as a new student group was 1926 per the 1941 Student Organization directory. The 1965–66 Student Org directory lists ΑΣΠ as (recently) inactive.
  377. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.204 notes its paired relationship with similar fraternity for men, Alpha Sigma Pi (ΑΣΠ). Founding date of 1933 given in the 1961 yearbook, but the 1929 yearbook says 1927. The 1965–66 Student Org directory lists ΗΣΥ as "recently inactive."
  378. ^ Mentioned in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.290
  379. ^ Noted in the 1943 Student Organization directory. First registered by the University on February 9, 1935, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  380. ^ Noted in the 1941, then the 1943 Student Organization directories as "recently inactive." "Date approved" as a new student group May 21, 1936, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  381. ^ Noted in the 1943 Student Organization directory.
  382. ^ Noted in the 1946 Minnesota Gopher yearbook. Evolved from the Original Roods, as named after John Rood, Ceramics professor, the group took on a Greek letter name.
  383. ^ ΣΓΤ national website states that reactivation of Sigma Gamma Tau requires a faculty sponsor. Retrieved May 9, 2020
  384. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.333 notes late-night tapping ceremony by awaking inductees with chimes. Like Iron Wedge, honorees performed usher duties at President's receptions. The national organization disbanded in 1959, allowing chapters to revert to local status.
  385. ^ As noted in the 1951–52 Student Directory, p.50. Retrieved September 21, 2020. This national has an active group at Kansas State.
  386. ^ ΟΔΚ of Minnesota's unnamed Chapter #155 lost its charter due to inactivity, per ΟΔΚ national, and is welcome to reapply. Retrieved May 22, 2014
  387. ^ ΓΘΥ national website chapter list. Retrieved June 20, 2016, notes their Eta Rho chapter at Minnesota being founded on April 25, 1990, with its last initiation on April 22, 2005, for an assumed dormancy date in 2006.
  388. ^ Order of the Sword & Shield national website. Retrieved October 7, 2016. The national was established in 2010, thus the Minnesota chapter emerged a year or two afterward. Note that the precursor to the CIA was the WWII-era OSS, which is likely the inspiration for the Order's acronym.
  389. ^ The University of Minnesota Medical School website lists ΝΣΝ's Epsilon chapter. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Address by 1914: 505 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1917: 429 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. In 1953, built 631 Oak Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside today. The Minnesota Gopher yearbook of 1894, p.93, notes that Nu Sigma Nu is the only medical fraternity in the medical department (~school) and limits its members to "regular medicine," thus, not homeopathy. The school was phasing out its Homeopathy Section about this time.
  390. ^ ΔΣΔ's Theta chapter U of MN portal. Retrieved May 21, 2014. Installed 1892, per the 2010 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, p.293. Address in 1914: 629 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1925–50+: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1959: 814 Essex Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 2022: 632 Ontario Street SE, Minneapolis, MN through present day. In 2021 the fraternity sold its Essex St. building to the University of MN, intending to purchase 632 Ontario Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  391. ^ a b A Sept 14, 2021 article in the Twin Cities Business Journal notes that the Alpha Chi Sigma building was being sold to Delta Sigma Delta. Accessed 14 May 2022.
  392. ^ ΨΩ Zeta Kappa chapter website. Retrieved May 19, 2014. The Minnesota campus had previously hosted the Lambda chapter of this fraternity, which was renamed at the time of recolonization. Address at least by 1925: 915 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1942: 901 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1943: 1829 University Ave., Minneapolis, MN (confirm?). Address in 1949: back at 901 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside today, razing and rebuilding on the same site in 1960.
  393. ^ Website for ΦΡΣ's Theta Tau chapter at Minnesota. Retrieved May 22, 2014. Address in 1914: 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1925: 629 Washington Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Zellie has a note that in 1927 their address was "317 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, built by ΦΡΣ, and razed in the (late) 1960s," but comparing yearbook records this seems in error: The 1926, '27 and '28 yearbooks all show the same house photo on Washington. In a further, complicating typo, the 1927 yearbook mistakenly puts this at 629 University, but shows the photo of the Washington Ave. house. Address in 1929: 317 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1973: 632 Erie Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, built by ΦΡΣ. (also Zellie). ΦΡΣ records indicate that the University of Minnesota chapter was originally named Tau chapter, but later welcomed the fraternity's nearby Hamline University Theta chapter as a merger partner, with the combined chapter renamed as Theta Tau chapter and continuing on the U of MN campus.
  394. ^ ΑΧΣ's Beta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  395. ^ ΑΧΣ Beta chapter website. Retrieved May 19, 2014. Address in 1914: 410 Harvard Street, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1924 until at least 1975: 613 Oak Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2014: 632 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2022: 802 Washington Ave SE., Suite 200, Minneapolis, MN.
  396. ^ ΦΔΧ's Theta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Installed March 26, 1904. Address in 1910: 1720 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 1115 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1920: 704 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1924: 710 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 701 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (at this time they considered a plan to build a house, but apparently abandoned the effort, per Zellie p.A-59). Address by 1927: 323 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Finally building a house, their address in 1960: 1024 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  397. ^ a b c d Note, there were two Phi Chi professional fraternities, one in the field of pharmacy and the other in medicine. The pharmacy-themed group established its Theta chapter at Minnesota in 1904. That fraternity, nationally, changed its name to Phi Delta Chi in March 1909. The medical-themed group retained the name Phi Chi, establishing its Kappa Chi chapter at Minnesota on May 22, 1920. It appears the earlier group's choice of renaming arose independently, though doubtless both groups were aware of each other; the pharmacy group had indeed considered the ΦΔΧ name as early as their second meeting in 1883 while still a local fraternity at Michigan.
  398. ^ ΘΤ's Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  399. ^ ΘΤ Alpha chapter website. Retrieved May 19, 2014. Installed Oct 15, 1904. Address by 1914: 321 14th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1925: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1926: 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1929: 629 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1940: 324 Walnut St., Minneapolis, MN. In 1957 ΘΤ built 515 10th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside through the present day.
  400. ^ ΔΘΦ's University of Minnesota Law School William Mitchell Senate, via the national website. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Address by 1913: 1011 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. There is another Senate (~chapter) at the University's law school called the Charles Loring Senate, founded in 1950, but ΔΘΦ's national website does not explain how they coordinate.
  401. ^ a b c The University's chapter of Delta Theta Phi dates from 1905, the installation date of its predecessor Delta Phi Delta chapter, and not the later-founded Alpha Kappa Phi chapter which also participated in the national merger.
  402. ^ Forestry Club website. Retrieved May 26, 2014. The 1925 yearbook notes this as the Minnesota chapter.
  403. ^ ΦΔΚ's Eta chapter at Minnesota was absorbed into the statewide 1612 chapter in 2009, according to the local website. Retrieved June 3, 2014. Address in 1914: 505 15th Avenue SE.
  404. ^ ΑΡΧ's Mnesicles chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 10, 2016. Address through 1925: 1529 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 315 19th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they had built at the entrance to a proposed "Fraternity Court" to be situated where Williams Arena now stands (Zellie). In 1952 ΑΡΧ built their International Modernist-style house at 605 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, which eventually (circa 2008?) was razed and re-developed by another party. ΑΡΧ is non-residential today.
  405. ^ ΑΡΧ Recolonization in the news Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 16, 2014
  406. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1927, p.453, shows Minnesota chapter. In 1988, Sigma Delta Chi (ΣΔΧ) changed its name to the Society of Professional Journalists, according to a historical brief, from the website of DePauw University where it was founded. Retrieved March 1, 2016. The University of Minnesota chapter's website. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  407. ^ ΚΕ's Alpha chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016
  408. ^ Kappa Epsilon was founded as a women's pharmacy fraternity, but is now coeducational. The Minnesota Gopher yearbook of 1926, p.525 notes its founding in 1917: Perhaps a predecessor organization? The group's constitution notes a 1921 ratification.
  409. ^ ΦΧ's Kappa Chi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  410. ^ The University of Minnesota Medical School website lists ΦΧ's Kappa Chi chapter on its website. Retrieved November 21, 2018. This chapter, formed independently by Phi Chi, later would absorb alumni from a dormant predecessor group that merged nationally into Phi Chi in 1948. This had been the Delta chapter of Phi Alpha Gamma fraternity, active at Minnesota between 1897 and 1909. That chapter closed with the demise of the School of Homeopathy. The merger allowed all remaining ΦΑΓ alumni to take their place as alumni of Minnesota's then-established Phi Chi chapter. Address by 1925: 603 SE Delaware, Minneapolis, MN. In 1931, built 325 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  411. ^ ΑΚΨ's Alpha Eta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  412. ^ ΑΚΨ's Alpha Eta Chapter website. Retrieved May 23, 2020. The chapter had been known for organizing the Campus Carni festival for decades. Address by 1914: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. No address listed in 1925. Address by 1928: 1801 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address prior to 1930: 406 14th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1930: 916 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1940: 1116 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  413. ^ ΚΨ's Epsilon chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016. Address in 1943: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1959: 340 University Village, Minneapolis, MN. Perhaps this was an office, only. Used university offices for their address from this point on. In its early days this professional fraternity had served both pharmacy and medical students. It had absorbed small the small national medical fraternity of Phi Delta in 1918, also present on the Minnesota campus. But two years after this chapter's founding, in 1924, the national split into Kappa Psi for pharmacy and Theta Kappa Psi which took 35 of its medical chapters.
  414. ^ ΦΑΔ's Mitchell chapter at the University of Minnesota (named after the jurist, not the law school in nearby St. Paul) as listed on the national website. Retrieved May 23, 2014
  415. ^ ΚΗΚ's Beta chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  416. ^ ΚΗΚ's Beta chapter website. Retrieved May 20, 2014. Address by 1925: 1807 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (razed, and later the site of Ridder Arena and the Baseline Tennis Center). Address in 1928: 531 Walnut Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1959: 901 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1968: 1100 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day. Note, this property's postal address was shifted, where it had formerly been listed as 330 11th Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  417. ^ ΦΔΕ's Alpha Xi chapter at the University of Minnesota, as listed on the national website. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  418. ^ ΦΔΕ's building was sold, and the proceeds for some time continued to fund scholarships for medical students. Archived December 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 23, 2014. The Make a Gift website for Minnesota's general endowment campaign, "Driven" states that it is no longer accepting donations for the Phi Delta Epsilon Jewish Medical Fraternity Fund. Retrieved November 21, 2018. This was originally a Jewish medical fraternity, but in the late 1960s opened membership to women, and to persons of any faith background. Address by 1945: 312 Harvard St., Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1959: 501 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN (now razed).
  419. ^ ΔΣΠ's Alpha Epsilon chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  420. ^ ΔΣΠ's Alpha Epsilon chapter website. Retrieved November 21, 2018
  421. ^ No address listed in 1925. 1927 address: 1428 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. 1928 address: 1405 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1929: 1029 4th St. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Non-residential by 1965.
  422. ^ ΓΗΓ's Minnesota chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016. This is possibly the group's only remaining chapter.
  423. ^ ΓΗΓ's Minnesota chapter website. Retrieved May 23, 2014. Address in 1926: 1221 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 410 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1942: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, a home originally built for Earle Brown, then owned by John Martin. Address by 1945: 325 19th Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1959: 914 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1965 or earlier: 1126 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day. (This last is the former Xi Psi Phi house, per Zellie p.A-87).
  424. ^ ΣΑΙ's Sigma Sigma chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 22, 2014
  425. ^ Company E-2, 2nd Regiment is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.368
  426. ^ ΣΔΕ's (or GWIS's) Xi chapter at the University of Minnesota. Retrieved May 23, 2014
  427. ^ "Association for Research in Business Education - Delta Pi Epsilon". Archived from the original on December 29, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2022.
  428. ^ ΑΨ's Nu chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  429. ^ ΑΨ's Nu Chapter website. Retrieved May 20, 2014. Address in 1959: 2111 Gordon, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1965: 2095 Scudder Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address by 1975: 2077 Commonwealth Ave., St. Paul, MN.
  430. ^ One of KAM's remaining group(s) at Mizzou Archived July 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  431. ^ ΔΘΣ's Delta chapter website. Retrieved May 21, 2014
  432. ^ Address by 1959: 1862 Eustis, St. Paul, MN. Address by 1965: 1485 No. Cleveland Ave., St. Paul, MN.
  433. ^ ΠΣΕ's Psi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  434. ^ ΑΤΑ website. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  435. ^ ΦΣΠ's Zeta Kappa chapter is listed on the national website. Retrieved November 21, 2018
  436. ^ a b Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.479 shows the Psi chapter of ΑΚΚ. Evolved from a local chapter named the "Alpha Rho Society," which had petitioned for an ΑΚΚ charter in 1897, per ΑΚΚ history. Retrieved June 29, 2014. Installed February 25, 1898. Address in 1925: 509 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN, likely the same property purchased by the University in 1932: ID#25-029-024-14 – check?. Address in 1943: 1021 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1965: 621 Oak Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1980: 627 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  437. ^ Origin date for the predecessor group to ΑΚΚ noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1905, p.410. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  438. ^ The Beta chapter of ΠΚΤ was short lived, at only 1 year old, when, following the founding chapter at Iowa the two groups merged into ΦΑΓ.
  439. ^ The Delta chapter of ΦΑΓ ceased operations with the closure of Minnesota's School Of Homeopathy. Eleven years later, in 1920, ΦΧ started a chapter at Minnesota independent of ΦΑΓ's earlier activity. The two nationals finally merged in 1948. The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1899 shows Delta Chapter of ΦΑΓ on p.271
  440. ^ Cannon, Daniel H. (1989). The History of Phi Chi Medical Fraternity Inc. Centennial Edition 1889–1989. Phi Chi Quarterly Office.
  441. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1909, p.110 shows the Alpha chapter of ΘΤ, with that name underscored by its predecessor name of Hammer and Tongs.
  442. ^ Baird's also notes that Sigma Kappa Alpha had been poised, in Jan 1910 to combine into a new, unnamed national with three other mining locals. However, the oldest of the four local chapters involved withdrew, so Minnesota's group instead accepted a charter from Sigma Rho, as Beta chapter that same year.
  443. ^ a b c Note, ΩΥΦ merged nationally into ΦΒΠ in 1934. This included Minnesota's ΩΥΦ Sigma chapter, dating from 1908. Also, ΦΒΠ and the smaller national of ΘΚΨ merged in 1961. This was the Xi chapter of ΦΒΠ. None of these survived at the University of Minnesota. ΦΒΠ's address in <1914 through at least 1945: 329 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Notes showed address in 1964 as: 624 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1965: 634 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, per the 1965-66 Student Org directory (typo?). However, Zellie shows this chapter building 632 Ontario in 1964, a building that survived as of 2003 (now home to ΑΧΣ). Check which is correct. May they have had two buildings?
  444. ^ This was the Kappa Phi chapter of ΘΚΨ. This chapter dates itself to its operation for a decade as a chapter of the former Phi Delta fraternity. The unnamed chapter merged, along with its national into Kappa Psi fraternity in 1918. For eight more years this national allowed both medical and pharmacy students under its old name of Kappa Psi, but that fraternity then split in 1924. Minnesota's Kappa Psi pharmacy fraternity chapter AND Theta Kappa Psi chapter were the result. Nationally, Theta Kappa Psi took with it its 35 medical chapters including this chapter, the Kappa Phi chapter of Theta Kappa Psi.
  445. ^ ΩΥΦ's Sigma chapter is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1911, as forming in 1908, p.416. Its first years were on the Hamline University campus, but in ~1912 it moved its charter to the U of MN. The chapterThe national fraternity merged with Phi Beta Pi in 1934, which had its Xi chapter at Minnesota since 1904.
  446. ^ Address by 1925: 603 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN
  447. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.454
  448. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1927, p.453, shows the Minnesota chapter. In 1988, ΣΔΧ changed its name to the Society of Professional Journalists, according to a historical brief, from the website of DePauw University where it was founded. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  449. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.474. This local group became the Beta chapter of Alpha Alpha Gamma, which existed until at least 1964. Regarding the former, The local ΔΦ should not be confused with the national men's fraternity of the same name.
  450. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1923, p.424, with many names continuing as members of ΦΑΔ the following year. The chapter itself was named after the predecessor club.
  451. '^ AWA+Ds website. Retrieved May 8, 2022. Minnesota was the Beta chapter of ΑΑΓ but looks to have ceased operations in 1959, five years prior to the reorganization of the national in 1964 as the Association for Women in Architecture and Design.
  452. ^ ΑΑΓ's Beta chapter was preceded by a local society, Delta Phi, formed in 1920. An online summary from the university's Anderson Library archive does not show whether this was a merger or renaming, but until someone checks the physical archive, it is safe to assume that it was a renaming, in 1922. Summary accessed May 31, 2014, but the website link was lost. The 1959 Student Organization directory noted this group as then (recently) inactive.
  453. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.304 shows the Minnesota Alpha chapter of ΦΔΓ
  454. ^ The Alpha chapter was noted in the 1928 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, p.478. The sorority combined with a similar Medical Technology sorority, Tau Sigma (local) at Marquette University to form Alpha Delta Theta on February 1, 1944. Noted in the 1944 yearbook, p.50.
  455. ^ Graduate Society of Human Resource Leaders website, noted as the only chapter of this organization. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  456. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1895 notes that ΠΣ was founded locally in 1894. p.166.
  457. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1928, p.484
  458. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.442 shows the Epsilon chapter of ΑΕΙ. The national was disbanded in March 1963, however it appears the Minnesota chapter continued as an unaffiliated local.
  459. ^ An extensive archive is on file, noting the creation of the AEI Foundation as one of two successors to ΑΕΙ from the sale of its buildings. Retrieved May 25, 2014. Address in 1967: 528 Ontario Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  460. ^ ΑΖ's LaGrange chapter at the University of Minnesota may be reactivated, if interested, per the national website. Retrieved May 23, 2014. Installed Feb 22, 1905. Address in 1914: 2089 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address in 1967: 1505 Cleveland Ave. N, St. Paul, MN.
  461. ^ ΞΨΦ's Phi chapter was at Minnesota. National leadership is interested in restarting the group, which had existed for 94 years. Accessed May 21, 2014. Installed October 8, 1905. Address in 1914: 1313 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address during the 1920s: 1126 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, (later occupied by Smith's Tea Room in the 1950s, and then by Gamma Eta Gamma law fraternity by the 1970s.) Address in 1945: 3325 Stevens Ave., Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1959: 1004 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through at least 1968.
  462. ^ Address in 1914: 1405 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.490 shows the Beta chapter of ΣΡ, located at 412 Walnut St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, residing there for two years. Address by 1927: 1115 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. The Alpha chapter at Michigan Tech remains active as of 2014.
  463. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1919, p.165
  464. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1917, p.378
  465. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1919, p.160
  466. ^ ΓΑ's Michigan chapter (linked through the Society's general Wikipedia page) notes that it is one of three or four surviving units, and the Minnesota chapter isn't among them. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  467. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.496 shows the Beta chapter of Cabletow.
  468. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.441 shows the Minnesota Beta chapter of ΥΑ.
  469. ^ The Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1924, p.214 shows this organization, open to Business and pre-Business female students.
  470. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.502 shows the Alpha chapter of ΣΑΣ. University archives list papers available for the period 1920–87. Address in 1943: 1625 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (Beta Theta Pi's home). Address in 1945: 1404 Logan Ave. No., Minneapolis, MN, a private home in the "Old Highlands" area of North Minneapolis. Was a residential chapter pre-WWII.
  471. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.529, shows ΒΔΦ's Alpha chapter
  472. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.482 shows the Beta chapter of ΠΔΝ. Mission expanded later to include bacteriology, zoology, pre-medicine, and physical therapy
  473. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.437. Check if this is the same as ΑΚΓ (yearbook typo?).
  474. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1929, p.413 notes this Alpha chapter of the sorority, and that there were two chapters. Is there a connection with ΑΓΓ?. The 1961 yearbook says ΑΚΓ was founded in 1941, which appears to be an error.
  475. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.495 shows the Rho chapter of ΑΩ. From at least WWII, ΑΩ was non-residential: a series of addresses seem to have been private homes. Address in 1943: 1310 E. 22nd Street, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1945: 2915 W. 43rd Street, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1959: 2123 St. Claire, St. Paul, MN.
  476. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.438
  477. ^ ΚΒΠ's Alpha Beta chapter at Minnesota was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1926, p.486, and in the 1949 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, p.461. The 1959 Student Organization Directory notes ΚΒΠ as (recently) inactive.
  478. ^ Noted in the 1959 Student Organization directory as (recently) dormant, members of this fraternity were listed as early as the 1934 Minnesota Gopher yearbook. Address in 1943, a private home, was 3349 Girard Ave. So., Minneapolis, MN.
  479. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1926, p.487.
  480. ^ ΦΜΑ Alpha Mu chapter #137 listed as inactive on the national website Archived May 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 23, 2014
  481. ^ A cursory Google search records list mid-1900 financial dealings, but no local activity for ΦΒΓ at Minnesota. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  482. ^ A cursory Google search shows several local obits and national C.V. references to Scarab Honor society, but no current organizational activity. Retrieved May 23, 2014. Chapters were called "temples." Minnesota's was the Temple of Khons, as noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1927, p.508.
  483. ^ ΤΦΔ's only remaining chapter at Penn State, their Alpha, mentions the Minnesota Beta chapter on their website. Now an outdoors-interest general local fraternity.
  484. ^ Address in 1927: 2257 Langford Ave, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1940: 2145 Scudder Avenue, St. Paul, MN.
  485. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1928, p.485
  486. ^ Minnesota's Trowel Chapter is listed in the 1928 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, p.454
  487. ^ ΑΤΔ's national website shows the chapter at the University of Minnesota as inactive. Retrieved May 23, 2014. The 1942 yearbook says this was the Minnesota Beta chapter. Address in 1929: 938 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  488. ^ ΜΦΕ's national website reports a continuing alumni chapter in Minneapolis, which provides music scholarship support to the public schools and to local ΜΦΑ chapters. The fraternity encourages re-establishment. Website accessed November 21, 2018. Original founding of the Phi Beta chapter was May 27, 1927, per the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  489. ^ ΦΒ's unnamed Minnesota chapter is noted as inactive on the national website, and requires faculty sponsorship to be restored. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  490. ^ This 1975 Minnesota student organization directory. Retrieved September 21, 2016, notes "Phi Beta Rho" as a professional sorority on campus. Might this be a typo, for the "Rho chapter of Phi Beta"?
  491. ^ ΦΕΚ's national website omits Minnesota's Sigma chapter from among its active chapters, indicating it has been dormant for some time. Retrieved November 21, 2018. Originally installed February 17, 1930.
  492. ^ ΖΦΗ's Pi chapter at the University of Minnesota is available to be re-chartered, according to the national website. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  493. ^ Noted in the 1959 and 1965–66 Student Organization Directories. A photo of the group from 1936 is in the Berman archives. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  494. ^ Archive notes from the University library note the group's founding as the Minnesota Business Club, which soon began chartering clubs in Ohio and in Michigan. Minnesota's was the Alpha chapter of the fraternity. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  495. ^ Noted in the 1943 and 1947 Student Organization directory, and yearbooks between 1938 and '52.
  496. ^ ΦΔ's unnamed chapter at Minnesota was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.358. Address in 1942: 416 Eleventh Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  497. ^ Anchor & Chain was noted in the 1961 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, p.342. "Date approved" as a new student group May 27, 1940, per the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  498. ^ National website for NBS-AERho. Retrieved September 21, 2016, showing Minnesota as a chartering chapter of the national organization. ΑΕΡ is shown in the 1970 U of MN student organization directory.
  499. ^ Noted in the 1943, 1945, 1947, 1954 and 1956–57 Student Organization directories.
  500. ^ ΑΔΘ's Alpha Iota chapter at the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia appears to be the only surviving chapter of this small sorority, originally established at Minnesota and Marquette in 1944. Retrieved May 20, 2014. Not to be confused with the national social and academic sorority that was absorbed into Phi Mu.
  501. ^ As noted in the 1951–52 Student Directory, p.55. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  502. ^ ΑΜΣ's assumed Alpha chapter was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1965, p.134. A LinkedIn profile of a member, James Hamilton, showed him graduating in 1970. Retrieved November 30, 2014, and the 1965 and 1975 student directories listed the chapter. Non-residential.
  503. ^ Not to be confused with the dormant Jewish national fraternity of the same name, which the Sanua reference notes had died or was absorbed by other fraternities by 1963.
  504. ^ Listed in the 1955 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, and the 1965 and 1970 student organization directories.
  505. ^ ΣΑΗ's Alpha Omega chapter was noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook for 1961.
  506. ^ The 1959 Student Organization Directory notes ΑΑΘ with an address at 329 Oak Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  507. ^ ΑΦΩ's Gamma Psi chapter University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved May 11, 2016, was founded April 18, 1942, according to the national website. However, the 1940 Student Organization directory notes a date of first approval as a student group on April 19, 1940. Which is correct? Note too, that Baird's Manual (20th ed.) has an apparent error, where it lists a "Minnesota Alpha" chapter for ΑΦΩ as dating from 1902. Investigating, we see the Minnesota Alpha chapter of ΑΤΩ was formed that year, and since no other versions of Baird's corroborate this item, it appears safe to assume this was a typing error of the Phi for a Tau in that list. [pVII-2]
  508. ^ Sigma Alpha Delta is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1918, p.361
  509. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1910, p.346.
  510. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1918, p.356
  511. ^ a b Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.502
  512. ^ Pinafore is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1918, p.360
  513. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.523. An organization of all fraternity men of the sophomore class.
  514. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1910, p.339. By the 1911 yearbook, five of the nine members had joined Phi Delta Phi, a pre-existing society. Most members joined scattered fraternities.
  515. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.524. An organization of all fraternity men of the senior class, "to promote acquaintance".
  516. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1920, p.402. An organization of all fraternity men of the freshman class. Not to be confused with the social fraternity of the same name.
  517. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1918, p.354
  518. ^ a b An organization of all fraternity men of the junior class.
  519. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1910, p.337.
  520. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1910, p.338.
  521. ^ Sigma Tau is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1918, p.362
  522. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.501
  523. ^ Skin and Bones is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1918, p.364
  524. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1918, p.363.
  525. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1926, p.315.
  526. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook, 1925, p.560. Yalomed is DeMolay spelled backwards.
  527. ^ ΑΦΧ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.281
  528. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1949, p.434
  529. ^ ΓΣΣ website notes that Minnesota's Omicron chapter is inactive. The local alumni chapter continues to be active. Retrieved May 20, 2014
  530. ^ Student Staff Directory 1972–73
  531. ^ Hillel Minnesota's University of Minnesota portal]. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  532. ^ http://www.ujews.com/ Hillel's website at Minnesota. Retrieved June 27, 2014. "Date approved" as a new student group February 20, 1940, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  533. ^ ΚΠΑ's University of Minnesota portal. Retrieved September 11, 2016. Address in 2013: 310 18th Avenue SE (this is the mailing address; living quarters at 315 16th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, above Bordertown Coffee, the former Theta Chi building)
  534. ^ ΚΠΑ members recount their efforts to purchase and renovate the building 'several' years after it was abandoned and after other redevelopment deals fell through, on their website. Retrieved July 5, 2016
  535. ^ There was a small national society named the Menorah Society, of which this group may have been a chapter, which had a chapter (and may have been founded) at Harvard. It had a magazine, called the Menorah Journal which ceased publication in the 1960s.
  536. ^ University archives note that Catholics first organized at the University of Minnesota in 1891. In 1900, the University Catholic Organization was formed, changing its name to the Student Catholic Organization in 1920, and then to The Newman Club in 1925. The Newman Club is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.323. The Newman Center, built in 1950 at 1701 University Ave., SE, Minneapolis, MN, served Catholics with meeting, counseling and worship space. It was closed in 1998 with its final mass celebrated in October of that year. Its functions were taken over by the nearby St. Lawrence Church. News articles at the time of closure noted that there was disagreement over management style, pitting the Diocese's hierarchical model with a more egalitarian, Paulist practice, in a time of social change. In 2012, the building was razed to make way for construction of the 17th Avenue Dorm. References accessed May 25, 2020.
  537. ^ ΚΦ's Delta chapter is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1959, p.349. "Date approved" as a new student group March 15, 1919, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  538. ^ Minnesota's Delta chapter is noted in this PDF recounting the national sorority's early history. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  539. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, p.548 notes the Wesley Foundation, with the Minnesota chapter established in 1920.
  540. ^ Noted in the 1943 Student Organization directory. "Date approved" as a new student group Nov 18, 1924, per the 1941 Student Organization directory. However the Minnesota Gopher yearbook of 1923 notes them as being founded in 1920, p.481.
  541. ^ ΚΚΛ's Alpha chapter is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.320. As of 2014, alumnae still meet and provide scholarships. "Date approved" as a new student group October 22, 1921, per the 1941 Student Organization directory. Address in 1941: 1011 5th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1942: 1405 Sixth Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  542. ^ The Presbyterian Union first appears in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook in 1923. ΧΚΑ first appears as a unit within this society in 1925.
  543. ^ This was the Delta chapter, one of four chartering chapters of ΦΤΘ, first registered by the University, October 19, 1926, per the 1941 Student Organization directory. It had evolved out of the Wesley Foundation-affiliated "Young Men's Club", heeding a call by the organizers to meet in Ames, Iowa to form a fraternity which they named ΦΤΘ on April 7, 1925. In 1941, Phi Tau Theta would merge with Sigma Epsilon Theta, forming a Christian men's national called Delta Sigma Theta, but eight years later, under threat of copyright lawsuit would reincorporate as Sigma Theta Epsilon in 1949.
  544. ^ ΦΧΔ's Gamma chapter is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.321. First registered by the University, January 22, 1926, per the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  545. ^ Following the Episcopal Unit of 1927, the Folwell Club is noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook of 1929, p.468. May have evolved into the Canterbury Club
  546. ^ ΓΔ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.324. Luther House is at 316 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (the former ΔΔΔ house). Per 1942 Student Directory, "date approved" as a new student group January 17, 1935.
  547. ^ Noted in the 1943 Student Organization directory. "Date approved" as a new student group February 4, 1937, according to the 1941 Student Organization directory. Kadimah was the successor to a campus group called Pro-Halutz. Kadimah is likely a late chapter of an international Zionist group of that same name. Kadimah, meaning "Forward" in Hebrew, had originally formed as a Jewish nationalist dueling (~fencing) fraternity in 1883 at the University of Vienna. After publication of Theodore Herzl's pamphlet, The Jewish State in 1896, the young men of Kadimah became his first, ardent followers toward fulfillment of that goal.
  548. ^ Kadimah, internationally, is discussed on pp.5–11 in the official written history of Zeta Beta Tau, Here's to Our Fraternity: One Hundred Years of Zeta Beta Tau, 1898–1998 Sanua, Marianne Rachel; Sanua, Marianne (1998). ZBT Centennial History Book. ISBN 9780874518795. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  549. ^ The Canterbury Club is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.322. "Date approved" as a new student group February 6, 1941, per the 1941 Student Organization directory.
  550. ^ ΔΚΦ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1959, p.352, and dates are from the 1961 yearbook. Note this is not the professional textile fraternity of the same name.
  551. ^ Student Group search page. Retrieved May 2, 2022.

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