Marshall Scholarship

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Marshall Scholars)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Marshall Scholarship
Marshall Scholarship logo.svg
Awarded forAmericans to study for a graduate degree in the United Kingdom
Sponsored byMarshall Aid Commemoration Commission
Established1953
Websitewww.marshallscholarship.org

The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship for "intellectually distinguished young Americans [and] their country's future leaders" to study at any university in the United Kingdom.[1] It is widely considered one of the most prestigious scholarships for U.S. citizens, and along with the Fulbright Scholarship, it is the only broadly available scholarship available to Americans to study at any university in the United Kingdom.[2][3][4]

Created by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1953 as a living gift to the United States in recognition of the generosity of Secretary of State George C. Marshall and the Marshall Plan in the wake of World War II, the goal of the scholarship was to strengthen the Special Relationship between the two countries for "the good of mankind in this turbulent world."[5] The scholarships are awarded by the Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission and are largely funded by the British government.[6] The program was also the first major co-educational British graduate scholarship; one-third of the inaugural cohort in 1954 were women. With nearly 1,000 university-endorsed and selected applicants in recent years, it is among the most selective graduate scholarship for Americans, with an acceptance rate of around four percent, and as low as 3.2 percent in 2015.[7]

There are over 1,900 Marshall Scholar alumni.[7] Many of these alumni have achieved distinctions and hold prestigious careers. In the government, current alumni include Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, the director of the CIA, members of Congress and presidential cabinets, and state governors. Alumni are CEOs of companies such as LinkedIn and Dolby Labs; and managing editors of Time magazine and CNN. They are also deans of Yale Law School, Stanford Law School, the Harvard Kennedy School and Harvard College; and presidents of Duke University, Wellesley College, the Cooper Union, and Caltech. They also include a Nobel Laureate, a winner of the Kluge Prize, four Pulitzer Prize–winning authors, twelve MacArthur Genius Grant awardees, NASA's youngest astronaut, two Oscar nominees, and one awardee of the Distinguished Flying Cross for service during the Iraq War.

History[edit]

George C. Marshall, for whom the scholarships are named

Plans to establish Marshall Scholarships as a living memorial to United States Secretary of State George C. Marshall was announced by British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden on 31 July 1952 and were enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the Marshall Aid Commemoration Act 1953.[8] The act's passage was backed by "leaders of all political hues," with British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin describing the scholarship's establishment as "a great opportunity for Europe."

While the authors of the proposal initially considered partnering with the Rhodes Scholarship, and even considered using the same selection committees, this idea was eventually disregarded because its proponents strongly believed the scholarships should be available to women, and to married men under the age of 28; at the time, the Rhodes Scholarship was limited to single men under the age of 25. The creation of a separate scholarship was a cause of great concern to Lord Godfrey Elton, the head of the Rhodes Trust at the time, who worried that the ability to study at other universities would draw potential applicants. He urged the Foreign Office to create a "reverse exchange" for British students in the United States instead.[9] The Rhodes Scholarship became open to women beginning in 1977 following the passage of the British Sex Discrimination Act in 1975.[2]

In 1959, when Parliament doubled the number of scholars from 12 to 24, British politician Philip Noel-Baker argued that "Marshall, more than perhaps any other man, destroyed isolation in the United States and built up the conception that only collective security through international institutions can save the world…I think the world has never seen an act of greater national generosity than Marshall aid and the other aid which the United States has given to other continents throughout the last 15 years." By 1960, six years after its establishment, the scholarship was "on its way to becoming as well-known and respected as the fellow phrase, "Rhodes [Scholarship]," and both scholarships attracted roughly 500 to 600 applicants.[10]

As part of the celebrations for the 50th Anniversary of the Marshall Scholarships in 2003, a Marshall Medal was awarded to distinguished Americans in recognition of their contributions to UK-US relations, including Stephen Breyer (1959 Marshall Scholar), Ray Dolby (1957 Marshall Scholar), Thomas L. Friedman (1975 Marshall Scholar) and Nannerl Keohane (1961 Marshall Scholar).[11]

The number of scholars increased to thirty in 1973, forty in 1991, and 44 between 2004-2007. In 2010, the commission decided to offer a limited number of one year awards.[12] In 2016, the Foreign Office announced that forty scholars had been selected, a 25 per cent increase over the originally planned 32, with Foreign Office Minister Alok Sharma calling it a demonstration of how "resolute Britain is in its commitment to the special relationship."[13]

In the early years of the Marshall Scholarship, it was common for new scholars to travel together to the UK on an ocean liner, but now scholars are usually flown together to London from Washington, D.C. following a welcome program with top United Kingdom and United States government and diplomatic officials.

Objectives[edit]

In a letter to the first class of Marshall Scholars, George Marshall echoed his own words in initially presenting his ideas for European recovery by saying, "A close accord between our two countries is essential to the good of mankind in this turbulent world of today, and that is not possible without an intimate understanding of each other. These scholarships point the way to the continuation and growth of the understanding which found its necessity in the terrible struggle of the war years."[5]

The published objectives of the Marshall Scholarships are outlined as follows:

  1. To enable intellectually distinguished young Americans, their country's future leaders, to study in the UK.
  2. To help scholars gain an understanding and appreciation of contemporary Britain.
  3. To contribute to the advancement of knowledge in science, technology, the humanities and social sciences and the creative arts at Britain's centres of academic excellence.
  4. To motivate scholars to act as ambassadors from the U.S. to the UK and vice versa throughout their lives thus strengthening British American understanding.
  5. To promote the personal and academic fulfillment of each scholar.

Selection[edit]

Prospective applicants must first be endorsed by their universities to apply. The selection process is then coordinated through the eight major British embassy/consulate regions in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C.). Selection committees in each region, consisting of former scholars and other distinguished individuals, receive university-endorsed applications (including personal statements and essays) which are used to select a short list of candidates for interviews. Each committee then interviews each of the regional finalists prior to making the final decisions on the year's awards. In 2014, sixteen percent of university-endorsed applicants received an interview.[7]

Although most of the responsibility for selecting the recipients is in the hands of the committees, a few formal guidelines have been outlined in the official selection criteria, most notably:

As future leaders, with a lasting understanding of British society, Marshall Scholars will strengthen the enduring relationship between the British and American peoples, their governments, and their institutions. Marshall Scholars are talented, independent, and wide-ranging in their interests, and their time as Scholars will enhance their intellectual and personal growth. Their direct engagement with Britain through its best academic programmes will contribute to their ultimate personal success. In appointing Scholars the selectors will look for a distinction of intellect and character as evidenced both by their scholastic attainments and by their other activities and achievements. Preference will be given to candidates who display a potential to make a significant contribution to their own society. Selectors will also look for strong motivation and seriousness of purpose, including the presentation of a specific and realistic academic programme.[14]

Between 900 and 1000 students are typically endorsed to apply for the Marshall Scholarship annually. In 2015 and 2016, 3.2 and 3.5 percent of university-endorsed applicants to the Marshall Scholarship were elected.[7][15] In 2020, 1,000 students were endorsed, 160 interviewed, and 46 selected.[7]

The Marshall selection committees place a strong emphasis on academic achievement and potential, and as such the application requires a minimum GPA of 3.7. Successful applicants, however, typically have much higher GPAs—more than half of applicants have perfect academic records.[16] Winners from Harvard University have had average GPA of 3.92, and Stanford University recommends that applicants have a GPA of 3.8 or above.[17][18]

Between 1954 and 2022, 256 of 2,179 scholars received their undergraduate degrees from Harvard University (12 per cent), 138 from Princeton University, 125 from Yale University, 94 from Stanford University, and 83 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Among public universities, the top producers are the United States Military Academy, with 47 scholars, followed by the United States Naval Academy (34 scholars) and the University of California, Berkeley (33 scholars). The following table includes those institutions that have produced 30 or more scholars since 1954.[19][7]

Institution Scholars (1954-2022)
Harvard University and Radcliffe College 256
Princeton University 138
Yale University 125
Stanford University 94
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 83
Brown University and Pembroke College 51
United States Military Academy 47
Georgetown University 36
Cornell University 34
United States Naval Academy 34
University of California, Berkeley 33
Duke University 32
Columbia University and Barnard College 31

Academic destinations[edit]

Nine institutions are traditionally the main destinations of selected Marshall Scholars: University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, London School of Economics, University College London, University of Edinburgh, King's College London and Imperial College London.[7] SOAS and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine have also sometimes been highly preferred.[7]

In 2015, there were 69 Marshall Scholars in residence at British universities including those who were selected for the classes of 2012, 2013 and 2014.[20] During this time, there were 27 scholars at the University of Oxford, seventeen at the University of London (including five each at the London School of Economics and King's College London, and one at University College London), thirteen at the University of Cambridge, and four at Imperial College London. Of these scholars, 46 were studying arts and social sciences while 23 were studying science, engineering or mathematics.[20]

Comparison to other post-graduate scholarships[edit]

In structure and selection criteria, the Scholarship is most similar to the American Rhodes Scholarship and the Fulbright Program. Like the Fulbright available for study in the United Kingdom, Marshall Scholars can study at any university in the UK. However, under the Fulbright, applicants compete in separate pools for 43 specified universities of varying selectivity, except for two awards tenable at any university.[21]

The Marshall Scholarship is more flexible than the Rhodes Scholarship, in that Marshall Scholars can study at any British university, and can also attend a different university each year during a Scholar's tenure.[2] In addition, a limited number of one-year Marshall scholarships are available. Unlike Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars must be American citizens (in comparison, approximately eighty Rhodes Scholarships are given annually to citizens of over a dozen countries). In the process, the Marshall Scholarship is approximately as selective as the Rhodes and Mitchell Scholarships: the Marshall was awarded to 3.4 percent of university-endorsed applicants in 2014, compared to 3.7 percent for the Rhodes in 2014, and 3.2 percent for the Mitchell Scholarship in 2017.[22][15][7] The Gates Cambridge Scholarship is slightly more selective with 1.3% of applicants receiving an award.[23] Also, because the selection processes of the scholarships discussed above differ, the likelihood that an applicant will be granted a final round interview is different for each scholarship. In 2014, 15.9 per cent of university-endorsed applicants for the Marshall Scholarship received a finalist interview, compared to 24 per cent of Rhodes applicants and 5.4 per cent of Mitchell applicants.[22][15][7]

While the selection committees continue to emphasize academic potential, over time "the Marshall program has become more Rhodes-like, stating that it is seeking persons who also demonstrate leadership potential." In general, "nearly all Rhodes Scholars are willing to admit that, by and large, the Marshalls are superior if one looks just at grade point averages and other signs of academic achievement," but this is a point of both "admiration" and "disdain."[24]: 293  Walter Isaacson, describing Rhodes Scholars as "fairly intelligent, well-rounded, honest people who could be counted on to be upstanding citizens," has said that "the real geniuses...were the Marshall Scholars," perhaps because of the expectation that Rhodes Scholars be "all-rounders." In practice, the Marshall and Rhodes have engaged an "informal rivalry," but in career trajectory after the completion of their fellowships, "the line between [the fellowships] is not so evident," with scholars pursuing similar fields with similar success. In general, a higher percentage of Marshall Scholars "go on to careers in academia and research, whereas Rhodes Scholars are more evenly scattered through the full range of professional occupations."[24]: 357 

Association of Marshall Scholars[edit]

The Association of Marshall Scholars (AMS) was formed in 1988 as a charitable organization.[25]

The organization has been led by several notable board and advisory members, including Kathleen Sullivan, Reid Hoffman, Nannerl Keohane, Peter Orszag, Harold Koh, Roger Tsien and Daniel Yergin.[26]

In 2017 the Association of Marshall Scholars, in partnership with the German Marshall Fund and the British Embassy, Washington, hosted the Harvard Marshall Forum at Harvard University to mark the 70th anniversary of the Marshall Plan and focused on its legacy and impact today. The event featured 30 speakers including Madeleine Albright as well as Supreme Court Justices Stephen Breyer and Neil Gorsuch, both Marshall Scholars.[27]

In 2018, the AMS partnered with the British Consulate General, San Francisco and the Bechtel International Center at Stanford University to host a Marshall Forum on Innovation. The Forum focused on the pipeline of scientific invention in fields such as biomedicine and genetics that are of particular interest to the United States and the United Kingdom. Distinguished speakers included Reid Hoffman, a Marshall Scholar, and David Reitze, Director of LIGO Laboratory. The forum highlighted societal challenges and opportunities raised by explosive innovations in these fields as they interact with advances in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and data science.

In 2019, the AMS hosted the Marshall Forum with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, focusing on peace and prosperity. The Forum featured 17 speakers including the Governor of the Bank of England Mark Carney, the Director of U.S. National Security Agency General Paul Nakasone, former U.S. Ambassadors Michael Froman, Carla Hills, and Bill Burns and former British Ambassador to the United States Kim Darroch.[28]

The Association of Marshall Scholars releases an annual public opinion poll in partnership with Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts. The poll measures the American public's perceptions of the United Kingdom.

Notable Marshall Scholars[edit]

Name U.S. university UK university Year
awarded
Notability
Anthony C. E. Quainton Princeton University University of Oxford 1955 Ambassador to Nicaragua, Kuwait, Peru, and Central African Empire
Thomas Eugene Everhart Harvard University University of Cambridge 1955 president, California Institute of Technology; chancellor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Ray Dolby Stanford University University of Cambridge 1957 inventor and chairman of Dolby
Arthur Jaffe Princeton University University of Cambridge 1959 L.T. Clay Professor of Mathematics and Theoretical Science, Harvard University
John Jay Iselin Harvard University University of Cambridge 1959 president of Cooper Union, president of WNET
Stephen Breyer Stanford University University of Oxford 1959 associate justice, U.S. Supreme Court
Bruce Babbitt University of Notre Dame Newcastle University 1960 Governor of Arizona, U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Keith Griffin Williams College University of Oxford 1960 president of Magdalen College, University of Oxford
Nannerl Keohane Wellesley College University of Oxford 1961 president Duke University and Wellesley College
Ed Victor Dartmouth College University of Cambridge 1961 journalist and literary agent
Graham Allison Harvard University University of Oxford 1962 foreign policy expert, Undersecretary of Defense
Thomas C. Grey Stanford University University of Oxford 1963 professor of law, Stanford University
Thomas Babe Harvard University University of Cambridge 1963 playwright
Stuart Kauffman Dartmouth College University of Oxford 1963 founder, Elizabeth Kauffman Institute for Transforming Medicine
Alfred Guzzetti Harvard University University of London 1964 experimental and documentary filmmaker
John Spratt Davidson College University of Oxford 1964 U.S. Congress for South Carolina
William H. Janeway Princeton University University of Cambridge 1965 venture capitalist and economist
Lewis Sargentich Occidental College Sussex University 1965 professor, Harvard Law School
Benjamin M. Friedman Harvard University University of Cambridge 1966 political economist
Linn Hobbs Northwestern University University of Oxford 1966 professor emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology[29]
William Broyles, Jr. Rice University University of Oxford 1966 screenwriter
Daniel Yergin Yale University University of Cambridge 1968 Pulitzer Prize-winning author
Jerry A. Hausman Brown University University of Oxford 1968 professor of economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Robert Oden Harvard University University of Cambridge 1969 president, Carleton College and Kenyon College
Peter Kramer Harvard University University College, London 1970 author
Nancy Cox Iowa State University University of Cambridge 1970 director of the influenza division, Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Jonathan Galassi Harvard College University of Cambridge 1971 president, Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Marty Kaplan Harvard University University of Cambridge 1971 director, Norman Lear Center
Jonathan Erichsen Harvard University University of Oxford 1972 professor of visual neuroscience, Cardiff University[30]
Odaline de la Martinez Tulane University Royal Academy of Music 1972 Cuban-American composer
Roger Tsien Harvard University University of Cambridge 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Benedict Gross Harvard University University of Oxford 1973 professor of mathematics known for the Gross–Zagier theorem
James K. Galbraith Harvard University University of Cambridge 1974 economist and Journalist
William A. Darity Jr. Brown University London School of Economics 1974 economist, professor of public policy at Duke University
Douglas A. Melton University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign University of Cambridge 1975 chair, Harvard University department of stem cell and regenerative biology
Thomas Friedman Brandeis University University of Oxford 1975 journalist, author, three time Pulitzer Prize winner
Harold Koh Harvard University University of Oxford 1975 former dean, Yale Law School
Sandra E. Shumway Southampton College, Long Island University University of Wales at Bangor 1976 marine scientist, University of Connecticut[31]
Amy Wax Yale University University of Oxford 1976 professor of law, University of Pennsylvania Law School
Jane M. Hawkins College of the Holy Cross University of Warwick 1976 mathematician, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Kathleen Sullivan Cornell University University of Oxford 1976 professor, Stanford Law School
Paul Tash Indiana University University of Edinburgh 1976 CEO of Times Publishing Company
Mary E Edgerton UT MD Anderson Cancer Center University of East Anglia 1976 breast cancer researcher[32]
Jef McAllister Yale University University of Oxford 1977 former London Bureau chief of TIME
Bill Buford University of California, Berkeley University of Cambridge 1977 founding editor of Granta
Edward Hundert Yale University University of Oxford 1978 educator, psychiatrist, and medical ethicist
William Joseph Burns La Salle University University of Oxford 1978 U.S. Ambassador to Russia
Jeff Modisett University of California, Los Angeles University of Oxford 1978 Indiana Attorney General
Thomas Carothers Harvard University London School of Economics 1978 vice president for studies at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Mark Whitaker Harvard University University of Oxford 1979 managing editor of CNN Worldwide, senior vice

president of NBC News, editor of Newsweek

Arthur L. Haywood III Morehouse College London School of Economics 1979 Pennsylvania State Senator
Jeffrey Rosensweig Yale University University of Oxford 1979 Director of Global Perspectives, Emory University
E. Sterl Phinney California Institute of Technology University of Cambridge 1980 professor, Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology[33]
Bruce Allen Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Cambridge 1980 director, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
Kurt M. Campbell University of California, San Diego University of Oxford 1980 Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
Steven Strogatz Princeton University University of Cambridge 1980 applied mathematician (Complex Networks)
James M. Poterba Harvard University University of Oxford 1980 professor of economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Richard Cordray Michigan State University University of Oxford 1981 director, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
D. Cameron Findlay Northwestern University University of Oxford 1982 U.S. Deputy Secretary of Labor
Nancy Gibbs Yale University University of Oxford 1982 managing editor of Time
Seth Lloyd Harvard University University of Cambridge 1982 quantum information scientist
Ted Conover Amherst College University of Cambridge 1982 author, essayist and journalist
Daniel Benjamin Harvard University University of Oxford 1983 Ambassador at Large, U.S. State Department
Stephen Jennings Dartmouth College University of Oxford 1983 Co-CEO, Monitor Group (now Monitor Deloitte)[34]
Matthew Adler Yale University University of Oxford 1984 founding director of the Duke University Center

for Law, Economics and Public Policy

Michael Klarman University of Pennsylvania University of Oxford 1984 Constitutional law scholar, Harvard Law School
Sheryll D. Cashin Vanderbilt University University of Oxford 1984 law professor, Georgetown University
Cindy Sughrue Boston University University of Sheffield 1985 CEO of Scottish Ballet, director of the Charles Dickens Museum[35][34]
Michael Otsuka Yale University University of Oxford 1986 professor, London School of Economics
Anne Applebaum Yale University London School of Economics 1986 The Washington Post columnist, Pulitzer Prize winner
Jeffrey Rosen Harvard University University of Oxford 1986 law professor and legal affairs editor at The New Republic
Terri Sewell Princeton University University of Oxford 1987 U.S. Congress for Alabama
David Laibson Harvard University London School of Economics 1988 professor of economics, Harvard University
Melissa Lane Harvard University University of Cambridge 1988 professor of political theory, Princeton University
Kris Kobach Harvard University University of Oxford 1988 Secretary of State of Kansas, national rowing champion
Mark Filip University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign University of Oxford 1988 United States Deputy Attorney General
Patrick M. Byrne Dartmouth College University of Cambridge 1988 chairman and president, Overstock.Com
Byron Auguste Yale University University of Oxford 1989 deputy director, National Economic Council[34]
Heather J. Sharkey Yale University Durham University 1990 professor of near eastern languages and civilizations, University of Pennsylvania
Charles King University of Arkansas University of Oxford 1990 author and professor at Georgetown University
Peter R. Orszag Princeton University London School of Economics 1991 director, Office of Management and Budget
Stephen Quake Stanford University University of Oxford 1991 professor of bioengineering at Stanford University
Jeffrey Glueck Harvard University University of Oxford 1991 COO and CEO of Foursquare[34]
Rosa Brooks Harvard University University of Oxford 1991 Los Angeles Times columnist, Georgetown University law professor
Carl Vogel Loyola University New Orleans University of Edinburgh 1991 cognitive scientist, Trinity College Dublin[34]
Jeremy Heyl Princeton University Durham University, Cambridge University 1992 professor of physics and astronomy, University of British Columbia
Angela Duckworth Harvard College University of Oxford 1992 head of Duckworth Lab, University of Pennsylvania
Kelly Grovier University of California, Los Angeles University of Oxford 1992 poet and literary critic
Neil Gorsuch Columbia University University of Oxford 1992 associate justice, U.S. Supreme Court
Annabel Park Boston University University of Oxford 1992 documentary filmmaker
Drew Daniel University of California, Berkeley University of Oxford 1993 English professor, Johns Hopkins University[36]
Nancy Lublin Brown University University of Oxford 1993 founder of Dress For Success; CEO, DoSomething
Danielle Allen Princeton University University of Cambridge 1993 director, Harvard Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics
Kannon Shanmugam Harvard University University of Oxford 1993 Supreme Court litigator
Ahilan Arulanantham Georgetown University University of Oxford 1994 human rights attorney
Jeffrey Gettleman Cornell University University of Oxford 1994 Pulitzer Prize winning author, journalist
Jennifer Daskal Brown University University of Cambridge 1994 former counsel, Department of Justice
Amy Finkelstein Harvard University University of Oxford 1995 professor at MIT
Jason Bordoff Brown University University of Oxford 1995 National Security Council[37]
Nicole Krauss Stanford University University of Oxford 1996 novelist
Mark Hersam University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign University of Cambridge 1996 professor of chemistry, Northwestern University
Jonathan Orszag Princeton University University of Oxford 1996 senior managing director of Compass Lexecon,

Clinton Administration Economic Advisor

A. Benjamin Spencer Morehouse College London School of Economics 1996 professor, University of Virginia School of Law[38][34]
Derek Kilmer Princeton University University of Oxford 1996 U.S. Congressman for Washington
Samuel Rascoff Harvard University University of Oxford 1996 professor, New York University School of Law
Joshua Oppenheimer Harvard University University of the Arts London 1997 award-winning documentary film director
Robert Lane Greene Tulane University University of Oxford 1997 journalist
Kim Campbell U.S. Air Force Academy Imperial College, London 1997 U.S. Air Force pilot, Distinguished Flying Cross recipient
Katie Beirne Fallon University of Notre Dame Queens University Belfast; London School of Economics 1998 legislative affairs Director, White House
Sewell Chan Harvard University University of Oxford 1998 journalist
Warwick Sabin University of Arkansas University of Oxford 1998 Arkansas House of Representatives
Dan Klein Cornell University University of Oxford 1998 professor computer science, University of California, Berkeley
Josh West Yale University University of Cambridge 1999 professor of earth sciences, University of Southern

California, 2008 Summer Olympics for Great Britain

Matthew Spence Stanford University University of Oxford 2000 deputy assistant secretary of defense for Middle East policy[34]
Zachary D. Kaufman Yale University University of Oxford 2000 legal academic and social entrepreneur
Adam Cohen Harvard University University of Cambridge 2001 professor of chemistry, Harvard University
Krish O'Mara Vignarajah Yale University University of Oxford 2001 president & CEO, Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service
Anne McClain U.S. Military Academy University of Bath and University of Bristol 2002 Major, U.S. Army, NASA astronaut.
Collin O'Mara Dartmouth College University of Oxford 2003 president of National Wildlife Federation[34]
Scott MacIntyre Arizona State University Royal Holloway, University of London, Royal College of Music 2005 musician, American Idol season 8 contestant
Andrew Klaber Yale University, Harvard University University of Oxford 2004 Partner at Paulson & Company
Tianhui Michael Li Princeton University University of Cambridge 2007 first data scientist in residence at Andreessen Horowitz
R.F. Kuang Georgetown University University of Cambridge, University of Oxford 2018 Fantasy novelist, historian
Finale Doshi-Velez Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Cambridge (Trinity College) 2007 Computer scientist

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marshall Scholarships 2012 Competition Statistical Report" (PDF). Marshall Scholarships. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Ivry, Sara (January 12, 2003). "Other Roads". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  3. ^ "10 Most Prestigious Scholarships In America". CBS News. January 26, 2011.
  4. ^ "Ambassador Names Marshall Scholars". The New York Times. December 15, 1996. p. 54. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Message from General George Marshall". www.marshallscholarship.org.
  6. ^ Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission / Year ending 30 September 2016 / 63rd Annual Report. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. March 2017. ISBN 978-1-4741-4013-3. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Annual Reports". Marshall Scholarships. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  8. ^ Britain to Set Up 12 Scholarships for U.S. Students. The Washington Post, August 1, 1952.
  9. ^ Mukherji, Aroop. Diplomas and Diplomacy: The History of the Marshall Scholarship. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. pp. 31-32 ISBN 978-1-137-58653-7
  10. ^ Stanford, Neal. Marshall Scholars: Terms Compared. The Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 1960.
  11. ^ "HRH presents Marshall Medals at Senate House, London". Prince of Wales.
  12. ^ "Marshall Scholarships: Corporate Plan 2013-2016". Marshall Scholarship. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. 2013. Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
  13. ^ "UK announces more scholarships for US students to strengthen links with USA". www.gov.uk.
  14. ^ "Who is eligible". Marshall Scholarships. 2021. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  15. ^ a b c Johnson, Jenna (November 26, 2013). "Meet the 2014 Rhodes Scholars". Washington Post.
  16. ^ "The Marshall Scholarship | Writing Personal Statements Online". www.e-education.psu.edu. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  17. ^ "Should I Apply" (PDF). Stanford University. The Overseas Resource Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  18. ^ "Harvard Post-Graduate". Harvard. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014.
  19. ^ "Winners of the 2022 Marshall Scholarship". www.marshallscholarship.org. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
  20. ^ a b "Annual report". Marshall Scholarship. 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  21. ^ "Countries". us.fulbrightonline.org. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  22. ^ a b "Announcements | The Mitchell Scholarship | US-Ireland Alliance". www.us-irelandalliance.org. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
  23. ^ "Closing gender gaps for good". Gates Cambridge. May 19, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  24. ^ a b Schaeper, Thomas and Kathleen Schaeper. "Rhodes Scholars: Oxford, and the Creation of an American Elite," 2010. Berghahn Books: New York
  25. ^ "History and Mission of the Association of Marshall Scholars". Association of Marshall Scholars. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  26. ^ "Leadership". Association of Marshall Scholars. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  27. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 3, 2017). "Gorsuch Rejects Doubts Over 'Rule of Law Today'". The New York Times. pp. A17. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  28. ^ Giles, Chris (April 25, 2019). "Financial Times April 25, 2018, Even US anglophiles warn the UK over trade talks". Financial Times.
  29. ^ "Materials Man: Linn Hobbs". Alumni News Northwestern University. Spring 2003. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  30. ^ "PROFESSOR JONATHAN ERICHSEN - Marshall Scholarships". www.marshallscholarship.org. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  31. ^ "Sandra Shumway | Marine Sciences". November 13, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  32. ^ "CLIAC Member Mary E. Edgerton". www.cdc.gov. September 3, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  33. ^ "Senior Adam Jermyn Named Marshall Scholar". California Institute of Technology. December 1, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h "Marshall Scholar Alumni by Year from Association of Marshall Scholars". Association of Marshall Scholars. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  35. ^ "Dr Cindy Sughrue to join NYJO Board". National Youth Jazz Orchestra. December 9, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  36. ^ "Drew Daniel". English. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  37. ^ "Jason Bordoff". Columbia University. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  38. ^ "A. Benjamin Spencer". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved June 14, 2018.